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Table 8 In vitro studies of γ-glutamyl cycle metabolites

From: The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Model Metabolite Study Cases1 Controls1 P values Overall finding2 Comments
Lymphoblastoid cell lines Free glutathione James et al. 2009 [80] 21.72 ± 4.3 26.48 ± 3.5 0.021 lower Whole cell etract - intracellular glutathione
    1.75 ± 0.3 2.64 ± 0.7 0.001 lower Mitochondria - intracellular glutathione
    19.8 ± 4.1 23.5 ± 4.5 < 0.04 lower Whole cell extract - without nitrosative stress
    17.4 ± 3.9 18.3 ± 4.1    Whole cell extract - with nitrosative stress
  Oxidised glutathione James et al. 2009 [80] 0.36 ± 0.06 0.29 ± 0.07 < 0.001 higher Whole cell extract - intracellular glutathione
    0.37 ± 0.11 0.26 ± 0.12 0.059 higher Mitochondria - intracellular glutathione
    0.26 ± 0.08 0.19 ± 0.04 < 0.04 higher Whole cell extract - without nitrosative stress
    0.51 ± 0.35 0.48 ± 0.30    Whole cell extract - with nitrosative stress
  Free: oxidised glutathione James et al. 2009 [80] 61.81 ± 10.6 99.14 ± 33.5 < 0.001 lower Whole cell extract - intracellular glutathione
    5.06 ± 1.3 11.63 ± 3.9 < 0.001 lower Mitochondria - intracellular glutathione
    19.8 ± 4.1 23.5 ± 4.5 < 0.04 lower Whole cell extract - without nitrosative stress
    17.4 ± 3.9 18.3 ± 4.1    Whole cell extract - with nitrosative stress
  1. 1 mean ± standard deviation, nmol/mg protein
  2. 2 cases relative to controls