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Table 2 Biomarkers # of dietary exposure by quintiles of dietary indices for girls (mean and 95% CI )*

From: Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany

  Index 1. Quintile 3. Quintile 5. Quintile ß p
Ferritin μg/l HFD 35.2 32.6 33.5 −0.354 .328
N=2,523 32.8-37.5 30.1-35.1 31.1-36.0   
HuSKY 35.1 34.0 33.7 −0.183 .589
32.6-37.5 31.4-36.6 31.3-36.1   
IFI 33.9 34.8 34.1 −0.127 .782
31.3-36.5 31.7-37.9 31.4-36.7   
Fruit/vegetable intake 33.0 34.6 33.6 0.240 .529
30.4-35.7 31.5-37.8 31.3-35.9   
HbA1c % HFD 4.80 4.84 4.81 −0.002 .891
N=2,494 4.74-4.86 4.79-4.89 4.76-4.85   
HuSKY 4.84 4.80 4.80 −0.009 .212
4.78-4.90 4.75-4.86 4.74-4.85   
IFI 4.83 4.80 4.83 0.005 .528
4.77-4.88 4.74-4.85 4.78-4.89   
Fruit/vegetable intake 4.83 4.83 4.80 −0.011 .136
4.77-4.88 4.77-4.89 4.75-4.86   
Folate (First period) ng/ml HFD 450.7 482.6 490.5 9.859 .010
N=1,502 423.6-477.8 457.9-507.3 463.5-517.5   
HuSKY 468.8 466.8 471.8 −0.929 .786
442.1-495.6 434.4-499.2 448.0-495.6   
IFI 471.6 458.0 490.0 4.700 .142
446.0-497.2 434.9-481.1 460.9-519.1   
Fruit/vegetable intake 435.4 482.3 489.4 7.814 .017
410.6-460.3 457.0-507.6 464.8-514.0   
Folate (Second period) ng/ml HFD 608.5 668.7 675.9 15.784 <.001
N=947 570.2-646.8 630.9-706.5 649.1-702.8   
HuSKY 622.3 665.4 675.6 13.293 <.001
587.0-657.7 624.8-706.1 671.4-709.5   
IFI 629.9 670.6 648.8 8.685 .094
593.5-666.3 634.8-706.4 620.5-677.1   
Fruit/vegetable intake 624.4 643.1 679.0 9.936 .044
582.9-665.8 607.3-679.0 643.4-714.6   
Vitamin B12 ng/1 HFD 445.0 485.7 457.0 0.962 .455
N=2,518
421.4-468.5 463.5-507.8 436.4-477.6   
HuSKY 474.8 458.3 471.5 −0.751 .857
443.6-505.7 432.2-484.4 445.8-497.3   
IFI 444.9 488.4 486.1 10.870 .003
419.9-469.9 457.6-519.1 460.7-511.5   
Fruit/vegetable intake 479.9 464.7 458.8 −3.606 .060
453.9-505.9 437.6-491.9 436.0-481.6   
  1. Abbreviation: CI (Confidence interval), HbA1c (Glycohaemoglobin), HFD (Healthy Food Diversity Index), HuSKY (Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth), IFI (Indicator Food Index).
  2. *P values less than 0.05 (bold) were considered statistically significant.
  3. #adjusted for age, energy intake, BMI, alcohol consumption, season, physical activity, smoking status, and family socio-economic index.