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Table 5 Biomarkers # of cardiovascular status by quintiles of dietary indices for boys (mean and 95% CI )*

From: Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany

  Index 1. Quintile 3. Quintile 5. Quintile ß P
Homocysteine μmol/l HFD 9.48 9.20 8.77 −0.164 .001
N=2,625   9.03-9.93 8.78-9.63 8.32-9.21   
HuSKY 9.69 9.09 8.89 −0.147 .018
  9.19-10.19 8.65-9.53 8.45-9.32   
IFI 9.84 9.40 8.79 −0.250 .001
  9.33-10.35 8.92-9.89 8.27-9.31   
Fruit/vegetable intake 9.83 9.05 9.20 −0.189 .037
  9.39-10.28 8.67-9.42 8.61-9.79   
Uric acid mg/dl HFD 5.72 5.46 5.45 −0.068 .001
N=2,635   5.60-5.84 5.35-5.57 5.31-5.59   
HuSKY 5.58 5.48 5.52 −0.020 .273
  5.47-5.70 5.36-5.60 5.38-5.66   
IFI 5.64 5.57 5.31 −0.064 <.001
  5.53-5.75 5.44-5.69 5.16-5.46   
Fruit/vegetable intake 5.56 5.58 5.59 0.001 .916
  5.44-5.69 5.47-5.69 5.45-5.73   
CRP μg/dl HFD 130.0 109.0 120.3 −3.846 .430
N=2,554   95.4-164.6 82.5-135.5 83.2-157.4   
HuSKY 124.5 143.6 108.8 −8.205 .034
  99.1-149.9 107.5-179.6 79.5-138.1   
IFI 132.3 112.5 123.1 −5.034 .528
  104.9-159.7 84.9-140.1 86.5-159.6   
Fruit/vegetable intake 133.1 126.2 127.8 −2.528 .654
  103.0-163.1 87.3-165.1 92.7-162.9   
Total cholesterol μg/dl HFD 153.5 154.7 154.4 −0.044 .842
N=2,634   150.6-156.4 151.0-158.3 150.5-158.3   
HuSKY 153.9 156.8 154.4 0.372 .538
  150.7-157.0 153.2-160.4 150.8-158.4   
IFI 153.9 156.5 155.0 0.414 .559
  150.8-157.0 152.8-160.1 150.6-159.5   
Fruit/vegetable intake 154.8 157.4 153.0 −0.225 .533
  151.4-158.2 154.3-160.5 148.7-157.2   
HDL-C μg/dl HFD 52.0 53.4 52.9 0.144 .557
N=2,634   50.8-53.3 52.1-54.8 51.3-54.4   
HuSKY 54.2 52.9 52.2 −0.374 .051
  52.9-55.5 51.4-54.3 50.7-53.8   
IFI 53.1 52.7 51.7 −0.148 .218
  52.0-54.3 51.3-54.1 50.1-53.4   
Fruit/vegetable intake 53.3 53.3 51.7 −0.271 .143
  52.0-54.6 52.1-54.5 50.1-53.3   
Systolic BP mmHg HFD 117.4 117.5 118.3 0.100 .552
N=2,624   116.3-118.5 116.1-119.0 116.9-119.7   
HuSKY 118.3 117.9 117.5 −0.224 .221
  117.1-119.4 116.7-119.1 116.2-118.9   
IFI 117.1 118.5 117.9 0.309 .265
  116.1-118.1 117.3-119.8 116.2-119.6   
Fruit/vegetable intake 118.1 118.0 118.1 0.011 .865
  116.8-119.3 117.0-119.1 116.5-119.6   
Diastolic BP mmHg HFD 69.3 68.7 69.5 −0.018 .991
N=2,624   68.5-70.1 67.7-69.7 68.3-70.6   
HuSKY 69.4 69.1 69.1 −0.087 .599
  68.6-70.3 68.2-70.0 68.0-70.2   
IFI 69.0 69.4 70.2 0.247 .121
  68.3-69.7 68.5-70.3 68.6-71.8   
Fruit/vegetable intake 69.3 69.7 69.4 −0.015 .981
  68.5-70.1 68.9-70.6 68.1-70.6   
  1. Abbreviation: BP (Blood pressure), CI (Confidence interval), CRP (C - reactive protein), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HFD (Healthy Food Diversity Index), HuSKY (Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth), IFI (Indicator Food Index).
  2. *P values less than 0.05 (bold) were considered statistically significant.
  3. #adjusted for age, energy intake, BMI, alcohol consumption, season, physical activity, smoking status, and family socio-economic index.