Insulin signaling in the hippocampus. The β-amyloid (25–35) infused diabetic rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (AD-CON), 1% less pungent red pepper (AD-LSP), moderate pungent red pepper (AD-MSP) or severe pungent red pepper (AD-SSP) for 28 days. The β-amyloid (35–25) infused rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (Non-AD-CON). CREB, cAMP responding element binding protein; pCREB, phosphorylated CREB; Akt, protein kinase B; pAKT, phosphorylated Akt; GSK, glycongen synthase kinase; pGSK, phosproylated GSK; Tau, tau protein; pTau, phosphorylated Tau protein. Each bar represents Means ± SD (n = 4). abcdDifferent letters on the bars indicate significant differences at P < 0.05.