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Table 1 Characteristics of school-children 11 to 15 years according to weight status at baseline

From: Ghrelin, adipokines, metabolic factors in relation with weight status in school-children and results of a 1-year lifestyle intervention program

Parameters Overall Normal-weight Overweight Obese P
n =120 n =44 n =39 n =37
Sex (girls) 59.2 % 52.3 % 69.3 % 56.8 % 0.270
Age (Years) 12.4 ± 1.1 12.2 ± 1.0 12.5 ± 1.2 12.7 ± 1.1 0.130
BMI (Kg/m2) 24.1 ± 6.1 18.4 ± 2.3*** 24.2 ± 1.6¥¥¥ 30.1 ± 4.9§§§ <0.001
BMI z-score 1.08 ± 1.18 −0.17 ± 1.04*** 1.47 ± 0.23¥¥¥ 2.15 ± 0.26§§§ <0.001
WC (cm) 73.9 ± 12.9 62.9 ± 7.1*** 75.1 ± 6.5¥¥¥ 86.6 ± 10.3§§§ <0.001
WHtR 0.46 ± 0.08 0.39 ± 0.04*** 0.47 ± 0.04¥¥¥ 0.53 ± 0.06§§§ <0.001
Abdominal obesity (%) 32.5 % 2.3 %*** 28.2 %¥¥ 73.0 %§§§ <0.001
Tanner stage ≥ 3 (pubertal/post pubertal) 92.5 % 90.9 % 92.3 % 94.6 % 0.82
SBP (mmHg) 113 ± 10 110 ± 9** 113 ± 8 116 ± 12 0.015
DBP (mmHg) 68 ± 8 66 ± 6 69 ± 9 70 ± 7 0.126
HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.32 ± 0.35 1.52 ± 0.36*** 1.22 ± 0.28¥¥¥ 1.18 ± 0.28§§§ <0.001
HDL-Cholesterol < 1.03 mmol/L(%) 21.7 % 11.4 % 28.2 %¥ 27.0 % 0.261
LDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.57 ± 0.67 2.55 ± 0.72 2.59 ± 0.62 2.57 ± 0.69 0.970
Triglycerides(mmol/L) 0.78 ± 0.44 0.66 ± 0.34*** 0.74 ± 0.35 0.95 ± 0.57 0.007
Triglycerides ≥ 1.7 mmol/L (%) 4.2 % 0 %* 5.1 % 8.1 % 0.287
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 4.8 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.4 4.8 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.4 0.019
Insulin (μIU/mL) 21.3 ± 12.9 14.6 ± 4.6*** 21.7 ± 13.9¥ 28.8 ± 14.3§ <0.001
HOMA-IR 4.6 ± 3.0 3.5 ± 1.1*** 4.7 ± 3.0¥ 6.5 ± 3.5§ <0.001
HOMA-IR > 3.16 (%) 65.0 % 38.6 %*** 71.8 %¥¥ 89.2 % <0.001
Ghrelin (ng/L) 1379 ± 488 1541 ± 514* 1355 ± 440 1221 ± 457 0.012
Leptin ng/mL 22.9 ± 20.4 8.5 ± 6.1*** 23.6 ± 12.6¥¥¥ 39.6 ± 22.9§§§ <0.001
Adiponectin μg/mL 5.4 ± 2.6 6.8 ± 2.8*** 4.9 ± 2.2¥¥ 4.1 ± 1.8 <0.001
  1. Data in this table are mean ± SD and column percentage
  2. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHtR wait-to-height ratio, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance
  3. P: P value for global comparison between the three groups
  4. Comparison for normal-weight vs obese children * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001
  5. Comparison for normal-weight vs overweight children ¥ P < 0.05, ¥¥ P < 0.01, ¥¥¥ P < 0.001
  6. Comparison for overweight vs obese children: § P < 0.05, §§ P < 0.01, §§§ P < 0.001
  7. All p-values are in italic and significant p-value are in bolditalic