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Table 3 Characteristics of the participants

From: Longitudinal study on the association between three dietary indices, anthropometric parameters and blood lipids

  Men (N = 373)   Women (N = 197)  
  2002–2004 2012–2014   2002–2004 2012–2014  
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) p Mean (SD) Mean (SD) p
Age (years) 47.07 (10.29) 57.62 (10.30) <0.001 45.18 (8.27) 55.67 (8.23) <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 89.04 (8.54) 90.01 (8.81) <0.001 75.65 (7.32) 77.81 (8.39) <0.001
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 25.36 (2.72) 25.71 (3.00) <0.001 23.43 (3.03) 24.07 (3.38) <0.001
VO2peak relative (ml/kg/min) 38.37 (7.99) 36.84 (8.63) <0.002 29.42 (5.92) 27.93 (5.59) <0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 206.39 (37.46) 205.74 (38.67) 0.732 207.72 (38.47) 224.55 (36.81) <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 55.68 (11.87) 53.97 (11.64) <0.001 70.80 (15.49) 69.19 (15.15) 0.100
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 127.95 (33.87) 130.29 (34.33) 0.166 118.13 (35.23) 136.17 (32.15) <0.001
Ratio Total/HDL cholesterol 3.86 (1.03) 3.98 (1.18) 0.011 3.05 (0.88) 3.37 (0.85) <0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 111.73 (63.80) 108.13 (74.42) 0.347 92.02 (36.90) 95.89 (53.61) 0.285
Diet Quality Index (%) 61.98 (8.78) 63.82 (8.32) <0.001 67.24 (8.11) 69.05 (7.07) 0.001
Mediterranean Diet Score (score on 9 points) 3.86 (1.53) 3.93 (1.54) 0.550 3.80 (1.51) 4.01 (1.47) 0.116
Healthy Eating Index-2010 (%) 44.85 (10.87) 46.68 (9.79) 0.002 49.22 (10.27) 52.03 (10.81) 0.001
  % % p chi2 % % p chi2
Actual smokers (%) 13.7 8.8 <0.001 13.1 8.5 <0.001