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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population according to quartiles of visceral fat area levels in men

From: Higher visceral fat area increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese adults

  Quartiles of visceral fat area (cm2) P-valuea
  Q1 (<89.95) Q2 (89.95–115.72) Q3 (115.72–140.46) Q4 (≥140.46)  
n 64 65 64 64  
Age, y 42.36 ± 12.69 45.29 ± 12.03 46.92 ± 12.06 47.17 ± 11.58 bNS
Body mass index, kg/m2 22.87 ± 2.23 25.59 ± 2.21# 26.80 ± 2.51# & 29.45 ± 2.77# & $ 0.000
Waist circumference, cm 81.28 ± 5.58 88.36 ± 4.93# 92.48 ± 5.50# & 99.57 ± 5.83# & $ 0.000
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.86 ± 0.03 0.90 ± 0.02# 0.92 ± 0.02# & 0.95 ± 0.02# & $ 0.000
Fat mass, kg 14.08 ± 3.52 19.90 ± 3.67# 23.35 ± 4.97# & 28.51 ± 5.64# & $ 0.000
Free fat mass, kg 55.38 ± 6.43 57.40 ± 6.06# 58.17 ± 5.60# & 62.75 ± 5.93# & $ 0.000
Percentage body fat, % 20.14 ± 3.63 25.68 ± 3.39# 28.50 ± 4.28# & 31.08 ± 4.02# & $ 0.000
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 118.89 ± 11.35 121.78 ± 12.12 118.41 ± 11.35 122.93 ± 14.70 bNS
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 78.19 ± 7.57 80.22 ± 10.05 80.57 ± 8.16 81.95 ± 10.95 bNS
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.71 ± 0.78 4.93 ± 1.08 5.17 ± 0.90# 5.31 ± 0.90# & 0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L 0.99(0.72–1.46) 1.38(0.94–2.10)# 1.53(1.22–2.11)# 1.69(1.26–2.18)# 0.036
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mmol/L 1.22 ± 0.23 1.14 ± 0.21 1.13 ± 0.21 1.15 ± 0.18 bNS
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mmol/L 2.85 ± 0.66 2.91 ± 0.68 3.24 ± 0.76# & 3.44 ± 0.79# & 0.000
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L 5.63 ± 0.95 6.10 ± 1.36 5.99 ± 1.13 6.13 ± 1.58 bNS
25(OH)D3, μg/L 42.30 ± 19.59 34.90 ± 20.93# 30.80 ± 20.15# 25.01 ± 14.05# & 0.000
Smoking, % yes 28.13 41.54# 43.75# 57.81# 0.009
Drinking, % yes 57.81 73.85 71.88 76.56 bNS
Doing exercise, % yes 51.56 67.69 67.19 73.44 bNS
Sunshine time, h/day 1.00(0.50–1.00) 1.00(0.00–3.00) 0.50(0.00–1.50) 1.00(0.00–2.00) bNS
Vitamin D supplement users, % yes 1.56 0.00 6.25 1.56 bNS
  1. Values are percentages for categorical variables, means ± SDs for continuous variables with a normal distribution, or medians (95 % ranges) for continuous variables with a skewed distribution
  2. Abbreviations: 25(OH) D3, 25–hydroxyvitamin D3
  3. aComparison among four groups
  4. bNS = no significant at p value > .05
  5. #Compared with Q1, P < 0.05
  6. &Compared with Q2, P < 0.05
  7. $Compared with Q3, P < 0.05