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Table 1 Basic anthropometric and biochemical characteristics of patients at baseline and after the interventions. The significance threshold for adjusted p-values using the Holm-Bonferroni correction is 0.05

From: Combined intervention with pioglitazone and n-3 fatty acids in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: improvement of lipid metabolism

  Placebo Pio Omega-3 Pio& Omega-3
Age (y) 62.0 (58.0, 65.0) 62.0 (60.0, 65.0) 59.5 (55.8, 63.8) 60.5 (55.3, 65.5)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Baseline 138 (129, 149) 142 (136, 151) 146 (135, 153) 139 (131, 145)
 Week 24 140 (131, 146) 142 (134, 148) 137 (131, 150) 136 (127, 148)
 ∆ 2 (−3, 7) 1 (−5, 3) −5 (−8, 2) −1 (−8, 1)
 ∆ (%) 1 (−2, 5) 1 (−3, 2) −3 (−5, 1) 0 (−6, 1)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Baseline 82 (77, 93) 85 (79, 91) 90 (83, 92) 81 (69, 94)
 Week 24 85 (70, 90) 82 (73, 89) 86 (75, 90) 82 (76, 92)
 ∆ 1 (−6, 6) −1 (−9, 2) 0 (−5, 2) 1 (−7, 5)
 ∆ (%) 1 (−8, 7) −1 (−8, 2) 0 (−5, 3) 1 (−8, 7)
Body weight (kg)     
 Baseline 87.0 (81.2, 103.0) 94.0 (85.0, 102.0) 98.8 (95.2, 110.5) 94.0 (79.5, 107.0)
 Week 24 84.0 (79.0, 103.0) 95.0 (88.0, 103.0) 97.5 (91.5, 108.3) 95.5 (83.0, 111.5)
 ∆ −1.0 (−2.0, 0.0) 1.0 (0.0, 2.8)c −1.5 (−2.6, 1.0) 2.0 (1.0, 3.0)a, c
 ∆ (%) −1.2 (−2.4, 0.0) 1.3 (0.0, 2.3)c −1.3 (−2.7, 0.8) 1.9 (1.0, 4.2)a, c
BMI (kg/m2)     
 Baseline 30.9 (27.7, 33.5) 32.0 (29.6, 35.4) 34.0 (29.2, 37.5) 31.4 (27.9, 39.8)
 Week 24 30.5 (27.4, 32.6) 32.4 (30.2, 36.6) 33.1 (28.7, 37.9) 32.0 (28.7, 40.6)
 ∆ −0.4 (−0.8, 0.0) 0.4 (0.0, 0.9)a, c −0.5 (−1.0, 0.3) 0.7 (0.4, 1.2)a, c
 ∆ (%) −1.4 (−2.5, 0.0) 1.3 (0.0, 2.3)a, c −1.3 (−2.7, 0.8) 2.0 (1.1, 4.2)a, c
Triacylglycerol (mmol/l)     
 Baseline 1.45 (1.23, 1.76) 1.70 (1.17, 2.41) 2.17 (1.50, 2.76) 1.71 (1.32, 2.21)
 Week 24 1.41 (1.10, 2.28) 1.89 (1.24, 2.36) 1.67 (1.53, 2.31) 1.52 (1.06, 2.05)
 ∆ 0.21 (−0.13, 0.48) 0.13 (−0.11, 0.66) −0.48 (−0.73, 0.36) −0.14 (−0.58, −0.02)
 ∆ (%) 10.1 (−10.6, 31.3) 4.9 (−13.0, 52.4) −18.2 (−23.8, 20.2) −12.2 (−24.0, −1.1)
NEFA (mmol/l)     
 Baseline 0.73 (0.64, 0.79) 0.82 (0.64, 1.04) 0.65 (0.54, 0.91) 0.69 (0.53, 0.74)
 Week 24 0.65 (0.51, 0.87) 0.51 (0.37, 0.79) 0.60 (0.47, 0.85) 0.53 (0.31, 0.70)
 ∆ 0.21 (−0.13, 0.48) 0.13 (−0.11, 0.66) −0.48 (−0.73, 0.36) −0.14 (−0.58, −0.02)
 ∆ (%) −11.0 (−40.7, 13.0) −43.2 (−50.0, −15.4) −16.0 (−47.6, 25.7) −9.4 (−43.0, 18.7)
Cholesterol total (mmol/l)
 Baseline 4.60 (4.00, 5.60) 4.54 (3.70, 5.50) 4.70 (4.49, 5.37) 5.25 (4.78, 5.95)
 Week 24 4.40 (3.53, 5.32) 4.47 (3.61, 5.06) 4.62 (4.40, 5.12) 4.56 (4.32, 5.45)
 ∆ −0.47 (−0.62, −0.20) −0.07 (−0.40, 0.74) −0.13 (−0.62, 0.21) −0.23 (−0.87, −0.04)
 ∆ (%) −9.8 (−15.9, −4.3) −2.0 (−7.8, 13.5) −2.9 (−12.9, 4.5) −4.7 (−16.4, −0.7)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)
 Baseline 1.09 (1.00, 1.29) 1.02 (0.90, 1.16) 1.17 (0.94, 1.28) 1.18 (1.03, 1.28)
 Week 24 1.04 (0.79, 1.17) 1.07 (0.96, 1.18) 1.04 (0.91, 1.25) 1.24 (1.10, 1.58)
 ∆ −0.05 (−0.14, −0.04) 0.07 (−0.05, 0.12) −0.04 (−0.14, 0.05) 0.12 (0.00, 0.22)
 ∆ (%) −4.8 (−10.9, −2.2) 6.2 (−6.5, 8.8) −2.8 (−14.4, 4.4) 10.5 (0.9, 19.2)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)     
 Baseline 2.45 (2.00, 3.29) 2.21 (1.70, 2.70) 2.70 (2.28, 3.00) 2.75 (2.37, 3.32)
 Week 24 2.60 (1.90, 3.02) 2.60 (1.86, 2.94) 2.81 (2.56, 3.24) 3.03 (2.33, 3.53)
 ∆ −0.09 (−0.20, 0.00) 0.13 (−0.03, 0.41) 0.16 (−0.17, 0.70) 0.30 (−0.17, 0.65)
 ∆ (%) −4.4 (−5.5, 0.0) 7.6 (−1.2, 16.6) 6.8 (−5.6, 27.9) 10.6 (−7.7, 20.2)
SOD (U/ml)     
 Baseline 1.40 (0.76, 1.89) 1.44 (0.75, 2.15) 0.90 (0.58, 1.38) 1.16 (0.78, 1.76)
 Week 24 1.22 (0.99, 1.76) 1.11 (0.86, 1.99) 0.90 (0.70, 1.35) 0.88 (0.48, 1.25)
 ∆ 0.05 (−0.67, 0.29) 0.21 (−0.33, 0.46) 0.07 (−0.25, 0.46) −0.23 (−0.68, 0.23)
 ∆ (%) 2.2 (−33.4, 38.5) 24.3 (−23.0, 43.1) 8.9 (−22.0, 46.1) −18.0 (−49.5, 34.8)
TBARS (mmol/l)     
 Baseline 1.71 (1.33, 2.04) 1.40 (1.16, 2.14) 1.46 (1.35, 2.29) 1.64 (1.26, 2.10)
 Week 24 1.42 (1.00, 1.64) 1.36 (0.97, 1.75) 1.12 (0.76, 1.43) 1.28 (0.97, 1.47)
 ∆ −0.23 (−0.76, 0.28) −0.10 (−0.42, 0.05) −0.59 (−0.93, 0.12) −0.20 (−0.78, 0.09)
 ∆ (%) −17.5 (−34.5, 25.8) −6.7 (−22.6, 3.2) −43.0 (−56.4, 11.9) −10.8 (−43.9, 11.2)
Ratio GSSG/GSH     
 Baseline 0.17 (0.12, 0.20) 0.14 (0.11, 0.17) 0.11 (0.09, 0.15) 0.11 (0.08, 0.16)
 Week 24 0.11 (0.11, 0.15) 0.13 (0.10, 0.14) 0.12 (0.08, 0.18) 0.14 (0.11, 0.20)
 ∆ −0.04 (−0.09, 0.02) 0.00 (−0.08, 0.03) 0.00 (−0.02, 0.03) 0.01 (−0.02, 0.06)
 ∆ (%) −20.9 (−47.5, 19.9) −3.4(−48.1, 67.3) 2.1 (−19.2, 38.7) 9.0 (−12.7, 53.2)
Leptin (ng/ml)     
 Baseline 13.2 (10.6, 17.2) 12.6 (10.0, 26.1) 12.7 (7.0, 23.9) 21.7 (9.7, 30.4)
 Week 24 14.4 (7.8, 15.8) 13.0 (9.2, 33.3) 11.3 (7.9, 21.7) 21.0 (8.5, 41.3)
 ∆ −0.8 (−1.8, 0.6) 2.4 (0.5, 3.0) −1.1 (−2.9, 1.0) −0.3 (−1.1, 0.5)
 ∆ (%) −3.2 (−14.5, 6.8) 10.3 (1.4, 29.4) −9.9 (−20.9, 12.2) −1.9 (−3.8, 3.5)
Adiponectin (μg/ml)     
 Baseline 6.3 (5.6, 7.3) 5.7 (4.6, 6.9) 5.3 (4.7, 5.9) 5.6 (4.8, 6.4)
 Week 24 6.3 (4.9, 9.0) 9.1 (7.4, 12.8)a, c 6.4 (5.7, 7.2) 8.9 (7.5, 9.9)a, c
 ∆ 0.4 (0.0, 1.0) 3.5 (2.6, 5.0)a, c 0.9 (0.6, 1.2) 3.7 (2.6, 4.8)a, c
 ∆ (%) 9.4 (−0.2, 27.4) 60.0 (45.4, 73.4)a, c 15.8 (9.0, 26.9) 64.7 (44.6, 91.8)a, c
Omega-3 PhL Index     
 Baseline 4.9 (4.3, 5.8) 5.2 (4.4, 5.8) 4.9 (4.6, 5.5) 5.3 (4.1, 5.7)
 Week 24 4.4 (4.1, 4.8) 4.5 (4.2, 5.2) 8.2 (7.1, 8.9)a, b 8.3 (7.4, 9.2)a, b
 ∆ −0.1 (−0.5, 0.2) −0.3 (−0.7, 0.2) 2.8 (2.1, 4.4)a, b 3.4 (2.5, 3.6)a, b
 ∆ (%) −2.6 (−10.5, 4.6) −5.2 (−13.9, 2.7) 60.8 (43.9, 88.5)a, b 62.8 (41.4, 99.9)a, b
  1. Data represent a median and interquartile range (Q1, Q3). Various parameters were analyzed in overnight (8–10-h) fasting patients at baseline and at week 24 of the respective interventions. ∆, a difference between week 24 and baseline values; ∆ (%), a difference between week 24 and baseline values in % of the baseline value; BW, body weight; BMI, body mass index, NEFA, non-esterified fatty acids; SOD, superoxide dismutase; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; GSSH, oxidized glutathione; GSH, reduced glutathione. a, b, cSignificant differences compared with Placebo, Pio, and Omega-3, respectively