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Table 3 Energy metabolism and substrate utilization after the intervention. The significance threshold for adjusted p-values using the Holm-Bonferroni correction is 0.05

From: Combined intervention with pioglitazone and n-3 fatty acids in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: improvement of lipid metabolism

  Placebo Pio Omega-3 Pio& Omega-3
REE (kcal/day) 1585 (1410, 2157) 1611 (1534, 1816) 1780 (1653, 2000) 1566 (1503, 1733)
RQ     
 Fasting state 0.80 (0.77, 0.83) 0.79 (0.77, 0.85) 0.77 (0.74, 0.83) 0.80 (0.76, 0.83)
 During clamp 0.85 (0.81, 0.91) 0.87 (0.83, 0.91) 0.86 (0.83, 0.87) 0.89 (0.84, 0.91)
 Diff C-F 0.07 (0.02, 0.08) 0.06 (0.03, 0.09) 0.08 (0.02, 0.11) 0.07 (0.06, 0.10)
Carbohydrate oxidation (mg/kg.min−1)
 Fasting state 0.77 (0.42, 1.18) 0.78 (0.47, 1.39) 0.44 (0.17, 0.92) 0.66 (0.43, 1.27)
 During clamp 1.09 (0.65, 1.99) 1.15 (0.88, 1.51) 1.17 (1.02, 1.32) 1.50 (1.17, 1.73)
 Diff C-F 0.59 (0.28, 0.79) 0.51 (0.00, 0.71) 0.90 (0.29, 1.13) 0.77 (0.41, 0.82)
Fat oxidation (mg/kg.min−1)
 Fasting state 0.80 (0.52, 0.88) 0.70 (0.31, 0.80) 0.91 (0.50, 1.01) 0.61 (0.48, 0.89)
 During clamp 0.43 (0.29, 0.73) 0.34 (0.24, 0.52) 0.46 (0.34, 0.61) 0.32 (0.13, 0.47)
 Diff C-F −0.38 (−0.43, −0.1) −0.20 (−0.39, −0.08) −0.31 (−0.54, −0.10) −0.35 (−0.40, −0.24)
Non-oxidative GDR (mg/kg.min-1)
  1.47 (0.87, 2.00) 1.80 (1.28, 2.51) 0.60 (0.05, 1.74) 2.32 (1.46, 2.81)
  1. Data represent a median and interquartile range (Q1, Q3). Data were obtained using indirect calorimetry performed in conjunction with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp at week 24 (see Table 2). Differences between parameters measured during the clamp and fasting state are also shown (Diff C-F). REE, resting energy expenditure; RQ, respiratory quotient; GDR, glucose disposal rate (indirect calorimetry). For evaluation of the effect of respective interventions on RQ (metabolic flexibility), see also Fig. 3. Non-oxidative glucose GDR was calculated as described in Methods. No significant differences between subgroups were found