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Table 2 Summary from clinical studies of impact probiotic strains on obesity and associated diseases

From: Probiotics in prevention and treatment of obesity: a critical view

Study Type of study Type of probiotics Duration of intervention Key findings
Kadooka et al. 2010 [72] multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 12 weeks ↓ abdominal visceral (on 4.6 %) and subcutaneous (3,3 %) fat areas as measured by CT
↓ body weight and BMI (on 1.5 %)
↑ serum adiponectin
Luoto et al. 2013 [50] randomized, double-blind, prospective follow-up study Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Mothers 4 weeks before expected delivery with extension for 6 months postnatally (in children) ↓ weight gain during the first years of life
- most pronounced changes were observed at the age of 4 years (P = 0.063), with lack of efficiency in the later stages of development
Vrieze et al. 2012 [75] randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial (FATLOSE trial) allogenic microbiota from lean donors to male recipients with metabolic syndrome or autologous microbiota 12 weeks ↑ insulin sensitivity (6 weeks after infusion)
↑levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota.
Mazloom et al. 2013 [76] randomized, single- blinded, placebo-controlled trial Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. bifidum, and L. casei 6 weeks ↓ triglyceride
↓ malondialdehyde (MDA)
↓IL-6 and
↓insulin resistance
All changes not statistically significant
Aller et al. 2011 [78] randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial Lactobacillus bulgaricus vs Streptococcus thermophilus 3 month ↓ liver aminotransferases levels in patients with NAFLD
Anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors remained unchanged
Malaguarnera et al. 2012 [79] open label study in patients with NASH Bifidobacterium longum in combination with fructo-oligosaccharides (Fos) versus life style modification 24 weeks Bifidobacterium longum with Fos when compared to lifestyle modification alone, significantly reduces TNF-α, CRP, serum AST levels, HOMA-IR, serum endotoxin, steatosis, and the NASH activity index.
Wong et al. 2013 [80] randomized, open label study in patients with histology-proven NASH Lepicol probiotic formula vs usual care 6 month ↓ intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG)
↓ AST level
No changes in BMI, waist circumference, glucose and lipid levels
Vajro et al. 2011 [81] double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in pediatric NAFLD Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG 8 weeks ↓ALT
TNF-α and US bright liver parameters remained fairly stable
Mykhalchyshyn et al. 2013 [83] open label study in patients with NAFLD “Symbiter” containing concentrated biomass of 14 alive probiotic bacteria 4 weeks ↓ IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ (in elevated transaminases sub-group)
↓ IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, (in normal transaminases sub-group)
Shavakhi et al. 2013 [84] randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with histology-proven NASH probiotic Protexin plus Metformin 500 mg (Met/Pro) versus Metformin 500 mg plus placebo(Met/P) 6 month Probiotic combination with Metformin improves liver aminotransferases better than metformin alone. BMI, fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride fell significantly in both groups.