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Table 2 Summary from clinical studies of impact probiotic strains on obesity and associated diseases

From: Probiotics in prevention and treatment of obesity: a critical view


Type of study

Type of probiotics

Duration of intervention

Key findings

Kadooka et al. 2010 [72]

multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055

12 weeks

↓ abdominal visceral (on 4.6 %) and subcutaneous (3,3 %) fat areas as measured by CT

↓ body weight and BMI (on 1.5 %)

↑ serum adiponectin

Luoto et al. 2013 [50]

randomized, double-blind, prospective follow-up study

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

Mothers 4 weeks before expected delivery with extension for 6 months postnatally (in children)

↓ weight gain during the first years of life

- most pronounced changes were observed at the age of 4 years (P = 0.063), with lack of efficiency in the later stages of development

Vrieze et al. 2012 [75]

randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial (FATLOSE trial)

allogenic microbiota from lean donors to male recipients with metabolic syndrome or autologous microbiota

12 weeks

↑ insulin sensitivity (6 weeks after infusion)

↑levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota.

Mazloom et al. 2013 [76]

randomized, single- blinded, placebo-controlled trial

Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. bifidum, and L. casei

6 weeks

↓ triglyceride

↓ malondialdehyde (MDA)

↓IL-6 and

↓insulin resistance

All changes not statistically significant

Aller et al. 2011 [78]

randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial

Lactobacillus bulgaricus vs Streptococcus thermophilus

3 month

↓ liver aminotransferases levels in patients with NAFLD

Anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors remained unchanged

Malaguarnera et al. 2012 [79]

open label study in patients with NASH

Bifidobacterium longum in combination with fructo-oligosaccharides (Fos) versus life style modification

24 weeks

Bifidobacterium longum with Fos when compared to lifestyle modification alone, significantly reduces TNF-α, CRP, serum AST levels, HOMA-IR, serum endotoxin, steatosis, and the NASH activity index.

Wong et al. 2013 [80]

randomized, open label study in patients with histology-proven NASH

Lepicol probiotic formula vs usual care

6 month

↓ intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG)

↓ AST level

No changes in BMI, waist circumference, glucose and lipid levels

Vajro et al. 2011 [81]

double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in pediatric NAFLD

Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG

8 weeks


TNF-α and US bright liver parameters remained fairly stable

Mykhalchyshyn et al. 2013 [83]

open label study in patients with NAFLD

“Symbiter” containing concentrated biomass of 14 alive probiotic bacteria

4 weeks

↓ IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ (in elevated transaminases sub-group)

↓ IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, (in normal transaminases sub-group)

Shavakhi et al. 2013 [84]

randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with histology-proven NASH

probiotic Protexin plus Metformin 500 mg (Met/Pro) versus Metformin 500 mg plus placebo(Met/P)

6 month

Probiotic combination with Metformin improves liver aminotransferases better than metformin alone. BMI, fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride fell significantly in both groups.