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Table 1 Lipid lowering effect of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives

From: Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: a potential class of natural compounds for the management of lipid metabolism and obesity

Derivatives Model Experimental outcome Reference
Cinnamic acid High Cholesterol fed rats (Cinnamic acid (0.02 %, w/w) - Inhibited hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and ACAT activity.
- Reduced the elevated AST and AST concentration in plasma.
- Lowered plasma and liver triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations.
- Improved antioxidant ezymes activities in erythrocytes and liver.
  Cinnamic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks - The administration of CA to HFD-fed rats reduced the body weight gain
- Reduced serum lipid profile and
- Reverted back near to normal of lipase and ACE enzymes activities
HFD diet fed Male Wistar rats
Ferulic acid C57BL/6 mice fed with high fat diet. - Lowered liver and plasma cholesterol by reducing fatty acid synthase and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase [97]
  Golden syrian hamsters (chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10 % coconut oil and 0.1 % cholesterol for 2 weeks) - Lowered plasma plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.
- Preserved the antioxidant status by preserving higher amount of Vitamin E in plasma.
  Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) - Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower after 2 h administration.
- The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid and drug metabolism was downregulated
  Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apo E−/−) mice fed Western - Lowered the Concentrations of total cholesterol (total-C), apolipoprotein B (apo B) in the plasma and epididymal adipose tissue wet weight
- Lowered hepatic ACAT and HMG-CoA reductase were only significantly.
  Male apo E−/− mice - Lowered The hepatic and erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels.
- Lowered the plasma total cholesterol concentration accompanied with a decreased hepatic acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase activity.
  Streptozotocin induced diabetes rat - Reduced the elevated plasma lipid and blood glucose levels [102]
Caffeic acid High fat diet in mice (30 mg/kg of CAPE) - Reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides.
- Amelioration in hepatic steatosis.
- Increase in glucose sensitivity by improving phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-2 and Akt phosphorylation.
- Reduced the induction of the inflammatory pathway, c-jun-N- terminal kinase, the nuclear factor kappa B, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression.
Chlorogenic acid ICR mice fed with high fat diet. - Lowered plasma cholesterol by reducing the activity of fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA reductase and increased the fatty acid beta oxidation. [15]
  Fa/fa Zucker Rats - Lowered plasma fasting cholesterol and triglycerides [103]
  Streptozotocin (STZ)–nicotinamide (NA)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. (CGA 5 mg/kg) - Lowered the plasma lipid; cholesterol, free faty acids and triglycerides.
- Lowered HMG-CoA reductase activity in liver and increased LPL activity in plasma.