|Cinnamic acid||High Cholesterol fed rats (Cinnamic acid (0.02 %, w/w)||
- Inhibited hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and ACAT activity.|
- Reduced the elevated AST and AST concentration in plasma.
- Lowered plasma and liver triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations.
- Improved antioxidant ezymes activities in erythrocytes and liver.
|Cinnamic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks||
- The administration of CA to HFD-fed rats reduced the body weight gain|
- Reduced serum lipid profile and
- Reverted back near to normal of lipase and ACE enzymes activities
|HFD diet fed Male Wistar rats|
|Ferulic acid||C57BL/6 mice fed with high fat diet.||- Lowered liver and plasma cholesterol by reducing fatty acid synthase and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase|||
|Golden syrian hamsters (chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10 % coconut oil and 0.1 % cholesterol for 2 weeks)||
- Lowered plasma plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.|
- Preserved the antioxidant status by preserving higher amount of Vitamin E in plasma.
|Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP)||
- Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower after 2 h administration.|
- The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid and drug metabolism was downregulated
|Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apo E−/−) mice fed Western||
- Lowered the Concentrations of total cholesterol (total-C), apolipoprotein B (apo B) in the plasma and epididymal adipose tissue wet weight|
- Lowered hepatic ACAT and HMG-CoA reductase were only significantly.
|Male apo E−/− mice||
- Lowered The hepatic and erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels.|
- Lowered the plasma total cholesterol concentration accompanied with a decreased hepatic acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase activity.
|Streptozotocin induced diabetes rat||- Reduced the elevated plasma lipid and blood glucose levels|||
|Caffeic acid||High fat diet in mice (30 mg/kg of CAPE)||
- Reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides.|
- Amelioration in hepatic steatosis.
- Increase in glucose sensitivity by improving phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-2 and Akt phosphorylation.
- Reduced the induction of the inflammatory pathway, c-jun-N- terminal kinase, the nuclear factor kappa B, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression.
|Chlorogenic acid||ICR mice fed with high fat diet.||- Lowered plasma cholesterol by reducing the activity of fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA reductase and increased the fatty acid beta oxidation.|||
|Fa/fa Zucker Rats||- Lowered plasma fasting cholesterol and triglycerides|||
|Streptozotocin (STZ)–nicotinamide (NA)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. (CGA 5 mg/kg)||
- Lowered the plasma lipid; cholesterol, free faty acids and triglycerides.|
- Lowered HMG-CoA reductase activity in liver and increased LPL activity in plasma.