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Table 3 Effect of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives on diabetes

From: Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: a potential class of natural compounds for the management of lipid metabolism and obesity

Derivatives Model Experimental outcome Reference
Cinnamic acid TNF-α-treated insulin-resistant mouse FL83B hepatocytes. - Increased expression of glycogen synthase, whereas the expression of glycogen synthase kinase and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at Ser641 in insulin-resistant mouse hepatocytes was decreased. [111]
  STZ-induced diabetic Wistar Albino rats - Improved glucose tolerance and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, [13]
Ferulic acid STZ-induced diabetic mice (0.01 and 0.1 % FA of diet) - Decreased elevated blood glucose level [14]
  KK-Ay mice (0.05 % FA of Diet) - Suppress blood glucose level [14]
  C57BL/KsJ db/db mice - Decreased blood glucose level by increasing glycogen synthesis. Increased glucokinase activity. [112]
  Streptozotocin induced diabetes rats - Prevents lipid peroxidation and improved the antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) [114]
  Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rats (0.2 % FA in diet) - Improved  
  Male C57BL/6 N mice (0.5 % FA of diet) - Lower blood glucose level and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activities. [113]
  Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp) (0 · 01 g/kg FA of diet) - Improved hypertension as well as glucose tolerance, plasma nitric oxide (NOx). Also increased several mRNA expressions of metabolic parameters involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms [129]
  - high-fat and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic adult male rats - FA treatment to diabetic animals restored blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance to normal range. - Hepatic glycogen concentration, activity of glycogen synthase, and glucokinase were significantly increased, whereas activity of glycogen phosphorylase and enzymes of gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase)) were decreased in diabetic animals due to FA treatment [130]
- FA (50 mg/(kg body weight · day)(−1), orally) for 30 days
  - high-fat and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic adult male rats - Authors suggested that FA treatment reduced the GLUT2 expression in diabetic animals by impairing the interaction between these transcription factors (SREBP1c, HNF1α and HNF3β) and GLUT2 gene promoter. [131]
- FA (50 mg/(kg body weight · day)(−1), orally) for 30 days
Caffeic acid C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice - Reduction of the blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Caffeic acid also markedly increased glucokinase activity and its mRNA expression and glycogen content and simultaneously lowered glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities and their respective mRNA expressions, accompanied by a reduction in the glucose transporter 2 expression in the liver [115]
  Streptozotocin induced diabetes rats - Improved lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme status in liver of rats [132]
  Mouse liver FL83B cells - Tumor necrosis factor-α was used to induce insulin resistance. may promote insulin receptor tyrosyl phosphorylation, up-regulate the expression of insulin signal associated proteins, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glycogen synthase, and glucose transporter-2, increase the uptake of glucose, and alleviate insulin resistance [118]
  TNF-α-treated insulin-resistant mouse FL83B hepatocytes. - Increased expression of glycogen synthase, whereas the expression of glycogen synthase kinase and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at Ser641 in insulin-resistant mouse hepatocytes was decreased. - Also suppressed the expression of hepatic nuclear factor-4 and activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [111]
  High fat diet in male BLTW: CD1(ICR) mice - Improved the glucose intolearance and normalized plasma insulin, adiponectin. - also suppress TNF-alpha, PEPCK and increased GLUT4 [119]
  L6-GLUT4myc cells - Increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the cell membrane of L6-GLUT4myc cells. - Increased phosphorylation of AMPK and increased GLUT4 content [120]
  Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats - Phoshoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA expression was decreased. - Decreased the fasting blood levels of glucose, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, and triglyceride induced by diabetes. - increased expressions of glucokinase and pyruvate kinase mRNAs and increased the liver glycogen level. [116]
  Swiss mice fed high fat diet - Improved glucose intolerance in high fat diet fed mice. - Improvement in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-2, followed by an increase in Akt phosphorylation. - Reduced the induction of the inflammatory pathway, c-jun-N- terminal kinase, the nuclear factor kappa B, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. [117]
  Male Sprague–Dawley rats - Increased the phosphorylation of AMPKα Thr172 in skeletal muscle. - AMPKα2 activity increased significantly, whereas AMPKα1 activity did not change. [133]
  Male Balb/cA mice (2.5 % CFA of Diet) - Increased plasma insulin and decreased blood glucose and plasma HbA1c levels. - Lowered renal levels of IL-6, IL-1b, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and decreased TNF alpha and MCP-1 mRNA expression. [11]
Chlorogenic acid db/db mice - Improved the fasting blood glucose level. - Stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via the GLUT 4 translocation and phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt. [121]
  Male Sprague–Dawley rats (CGA (120 mg · kg–1) - Improved glucose metabolism as seen in decreased AUC. [134]