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Table 3 Comparison of the levels of alcohol metabolites, nutrient, micronutrients, and physiological factors in the control or AFT groups

From: Alanine-fortified tomatoes relieve the acute alcohol-induced adverse effects in healthy men: a randomized cross-over study

   18:00 21:00 00:00 6:00 Temporal change
   (Before alcohol ingestion)     
Alcohol metabolites       
 Acetaldehyde (μg/mL) Control 0 (0) 0.21 (0.20) 0.21 (0.22) 0.02 (0.04) -
  AFT 0 (0) 0.33 (0.15) 0.16 (0.13) 0.02 (0.03) -
 Acetate (μg/mL) Control 14.1 (3.8) 76.8 (20.3) 66.9 (15.1) 11.4 (3.5) -
  AFT 12.4 (4.0) 97.8 (25.4)** 76.5 (15.2) 13.6 (3.8) -
Nutrients, micronutrients       
 Glucose (mg/dL) Control 90 (4) 94 (14) 88 (8) 87 (8) No significant
  AFT 91 (6) 86 (11) 89 (5) 88 (6) No significant
 Alanine (μmol/L) Control 194 (57) - 94 (30) 162 (45) Significant decrease (p < 0.001)
  AFT 200 (44) - 396 (122)** 290 (84)** Significant increase (p < 0.001)
 Vitamin B1 (ng/mL) Control 5.9 (0.9) - - 6.4 (0.9) Significant increase (p < 0.01)
  AFT 5.8 (1.0) - - 6.1 (1.0) Significant increase (p < 0.001)
 Vitamin B6 (ng/mL) Control 12.0 (5.9) - - 14.8 (6.6) Significant increase (p < 0.001)
  AFT 13.1 (5.6) - - 15.8 (6.1) Significant increase (p < 0.001)
 Folic acid (ng/mL) Control 5.7 (1.9) - - 6.8 (2.1) Significant increase (p < 0.01)
  AFT 5.5 (2.2) - - 7.7 (2.5)* Significant increase (p < 0.001)
 Vitamin C (μg/mL) Control 7.0 (2.5) - - 6.4 (2.0) Significant decrease (p < 0.05)
  AFT 7.2 (2.1) - - 7.0 (2.2) No significant
Physiological factors       
 Urinary pH Control 6.7 (0.8) 5.7 (0.3) 5.8 (0.5) 5.7 (0.8) Significant decrease (p < 0.05)
  AFT 6.7 (0.7) 6.1 (0.4)** 6.5 (0.5)** 5.8 (0.4) Significant decrease (p < 0.001)
 Vasopressin (pg/mL) Control 4.3 (1.7) 4.5 (1.7) 5.5 (6.0) 6.3 (6.8) No significant
  AFT 4.6 (1.8) 4.7 (2.1) 4.6 (1.6) 4.8 (4.8) No significant
  1. Results are expressed as the means and standard deviation (mean ± SD, n = 15). Asterisks indicate significant differences compared to the control group; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, Student’s t-test. Temporal changes of each item were analyzed with a paired t-test or a repeated ANOVA. -; not determined or analyzed. AFT alanine-fortified tomato