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Table 3 Effects of interventions on VR of conduit arteries (echo-Doppler), resistance (VOP) and microvessels (NIRS)

From: Impact of flavonoid-rich black tea and beetroot juice on postprandial peripheral vascular resistance and glucose homeostasis in obese, insulin-resistant men: a randomized controlled trial

Variable/treatment Time (minutes)  
−20 +30 +60 +90 +120 +150 +180 LSMeans P-values
BA VR (echo-Doppler), mmHg ∙ min/ml         
   Control 117 ± 59 127 ± 70 109 ± 49 119 ± 50 120 ± 52 116 ± 56 125 ± 52 100  
   Beetroot juice 103 ± 57 89 ± 56 104 ± 66 137 ± 122 109 ± 57 123 ± 114 111 ± 61 98 ns
   Black tea 98 ± 41 103 ± 58 88 ± 38 98 ± 44 92 ± 47 94 ± 56 106 ± 52 88 0.008
SFA VR (echo-Doppler), mmHg ∙ min/ml         
   Control 61 ± 28 53 ± 31 58 ± 39 73 ± 69 61 ± 34 61 ± 55 74 ± 65 54  
   Beetroot juice 87 ± 67 55 ± 22 49 ± 20 65 ± 56 48 ± 23 63 ± 49 90 ± 105 46 ns
   Black tea 63 ± 69 60 ± 58 55 ± 55 51 ± 45 48 ± 32 107 ± 219 42 ± 17 46 0.033
Arm VR (VOP), mmHg ∙ min ∙ 100 ml tissue/ml        
   Control 54 ± 22 60 ± 27 61 ± 36 62 ± 43 56 ± 28 54 ± 28 56 ± 31 50  
   Beetroot juice 49 ± 23 53 ± 33 49 ± 20 44 ± 16 46 ± 20 47 ± 18 43 ± 23 44 0.020
   Black tea 52 ± 17 55 ± 26 53 ± 22 53 ± 23 51 ± 18 52 ± 22 49 ± 18 48 ns
Leg VR (VOP), mmHg ∙ min ∙ 100ml tissue/ml        
   Control 44 ± 27 45 ± 20 45 ± 27 45 ± 31 44 ± 31 44 ± 25 44 ± 31 40  
   Beetroot juice 44 ± 23 42 ± 26 41 ± 27 41 ± 27 44 ± 33 41 ± 30 41 ± 30 35 <0.0001
   Black tea 43 ± 19 43 ± 25 42 ± 25 43 ± 29 45 ± 36 43 ± 28 43 ± 22 38 0.041
Arm VR (NIRS), A.U.          
   Control 129 ± 108 111 ± 66 132 ± 78 122 ± 49 155 ± 167 118 ± 92 124 ± 124 112  
   Beetroot juice 152 ± 147 125 ± 89 121 ± 91 145 ± 125 170 ± 156 128 ± 101 118 ± 105 105 Ns
   Black tea 201 ± 150 149 ± 142 125 ± 77 108 ± 53 133 ± 85 112 ± 69 117 ± 51 84 0.002
  1. Values are means ± SD per time point or LSMeans over all time points, i.e. before (-20) and after 75 g glucose (at 30-min intervals for 3-h); P-values were calculated for the differences in LSMeans compared to control. BA brachial artery; ns: not significant, SFA superficial femoral artery, VR vascular resistance