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Table 2 Characteristics of the study participants in the validation stage

From: Serum metabolic biomarkers distinguish metabolically healthy peripherally obese from unhealthy centrally obese individuals

Variables NW(n = 20) MUCO(29) MHPO (30) P1 P2 P3
Age (years) 44.9 ± 11.4 49.3 ± 11.4 43.4 ± 11.8 0.384 0.880 0.115
Sex (F/M) 10/10 15/14 15/15 1.000a 1.000a 1.000a
Anthropometry       
 BMI (kg/m2) 21.7 ± 0.8 31.6 ± 3.2 30.1 ± 1.4 0.000 0.000 0.066
 Waist Circumference(cm) 80.7 ± 6.4 107.5 ± 9.5 92.1 ± 7.6 0.000 0.000 0.000
 BF % 25.3 ± 8.6 36.5 ± 6.9 35.6 ± 9.2 0.000 0.000 0.924
 TF % 26.9 ± 8.6 41.6 ± 5.8 39.8 ± 7.2 0.000 0.000 0.607
 AF% 31.9 ± 11.8 48.7 ± 5.7 45.9 ± 6.6 0.000 0.000 0.247
 Visceral fat(g) 354.3 ± 295.9 2077.8 ± 814.4 1120.00 ± 641.4 0.000 0.000 0.000
 VF% 2.5 ± 2.1 6.5 ± 2.3 4.2 ± 2.8 0.000 0.057 0.002
Metabolic Profile       
 SBP (mmHg) 122.4 ± 14.4 137.4 ± 14.3 130.1 ± 15.9 0.003 0.192 0.165
 DBP (mmHg) 78.1 ± 9.3 84.3 ± 10.9 85.5 ± 8.3 0.072 0.028 0.890
 TG (mmol/L) 0.87 ± 0.29 2.79 ± 1.27 1.11 ± 0.53 0.000 0.060 0.000
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.6 ± 0.23 0.99 ± 0.17 1.5 ± 0.4 0.000 0.521 0.000
 Glucose (mmol/L) 5.0 ± 0.28 7.3 ± 2.8 4.9 ± 0.34 0.000 0.931 0.000
 Insulin (pmol/L) 38.9 ± 20.3 153.1 ± 48.6 58.5 ± 32.5 0.000 0.035 0.000
 HOMA-IR 1.2 ± 0.6 7.1 ± 3.9 1.9 ± 1.0 0.000 0.029 0.000
Diet and Physical Activity       
 Caloric intake (kcal/day) 1896.2 ± 1199.7 1509.3 ± 568.2 1935.6 ± 789.5 0.292 0.999 0.210
 Protein intake (g/day) 65.8 ± 36.5 60.6 ± 32.7 73.1 ± 34.5 0.601 0.729 0.152
 Fat intake (g/day) 57.0 ± 22.7 50.2 ± 19.6 55.2 ± 20.4 0.800 0.984 0.863
 Carbohydrate (g/day) 238.6 ± 128.7 201.9 ± 87.1 248.9 ± 120.4 0.369 1.000 0.074
 Physical activity level 8.1 ± 1.7 7.3 ± 1.2 8.1 ± 1.4 0.090 0.974 0.089
  1. All values are means ± SDs. The One-Way ANCOVA followed by Tukey test was set to p < 0.05. NW: Normal Wight; MUCO: metabolically unhealthy central obesity; MHPO: metabolically healthy peripheral obesity; P1:The P value between MUCO and NW groups; P2:The P value between MHPO and NW groups; P3:The P value between MUCO and MHPO groups; Logarithmic transformation was used for the variables that did not have normal distribution (Insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, TG)
  2. a Analyzed by chi-square tests by SPSS, statistical significance was set to p < 0.05