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Table 1 Stages of the kinases insensitivity under disease conditions

From: Chronic over-nutrition and dysregulation of GSK3 in diseases

Stage Model system PI3K activity Akt activity GSK3 activity Insensitive kinase Phenotype
0 Male Sprague Dawley (SD) Rats High High Low None Early insulin resistance
1 Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPE) treated with VEGF High High High GSK3 Low growth
2 Human monocytes overexpressing IL17RC or treated with VEGF High Unchanged or low High GSK3, Akt Low growth
3 HRPE overexpressing IL17RC Low Low High GSK3, Akt, PI3K Low growth