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Table 2 Acutea and chronicb effects of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and associated outcomes

From: Nutritional modulation of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion: a review

Studies Experimental model Dietary intervention Main outcomes measured
Thomsen 1999
[137]
〉 Healthy men and women MUFAs from olive oila (80 g) ↑ GLP-1 blood concentrations
↑ Glucose-insulinotropic peptide blood concentrations
Thomsen 2003
[138]
〉 Men and women with T2D MUFAs from olive oila (80 g) ↑ GLP-1 blood concentrations
↓ Triglyceride blood concentrations
↑ High-density lipoprotein cholesterol blood concentrations
Hirasawa 2005
[136]
〉 Male C57/B6 rats α-linolenic acid (0.1 μmol)a ↑ GLP-1 blood concentrations
↑ Insulin blood concentrations
Prieto 2005
[139]
〉 Wistar rats MUFAs from olive oilb,c ↑ GLP-1 blood concentrations
↑ Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion
↑ Glucose tolerance
Cancelas 2006
[140]
〉 Streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats MUFAs from olive oilb,c ↑ GLP-1 postprandial secretion
↑ Insulin sensitivity
↓ Weight gain
Adachi 2006
[142]
〉 Male C57BL/6 J mice
〉 Diabetic male NSY mice
〉 C3H/He mice
α-linolenic acid (0.3 μmol)a ↑ GLP-1 blood concentrations
↑ Insulin blood concentrations
↓ Blood glucose concentrations
Paniagua 2007
[141]
〉 Insulin resistant men and women MUFAs from an olive-oil containing Mediterranean diet (23% of total energy intake)b ↑ Postprandial GLP-1 concentrations
↑ Insulin sensitivity
↓ Postprandial insulin secretion
↓ Fasting and postprandial blood glucose concentrations
Tanaka 2008
[143]
〉 Male Wistar rats α-linolenic acid (3 μmol)a,b ↑ GLP-1 blood concentrations
↑ pancreatic β-cell number and mass
Cheshmehkani 2015 [144] 〉 Male Sprague-Dawley rats Fish or flaxseed oilb,d
(10% of diet)
↑ FFAR4 expression in the colon
↓ TNFα blood concentrations
  1. FFAR4: Free fatty acid receptor 4; GLP-1: Glucagon-like peptide-1; MUFAs: Monounsaturated fatty acids; SCFAs: Short-chain fatty acids; TNFα: Tumour necrosis factor α
  2. a Acute effect (5 minutes post-consumption)
  3. b Chronic effect (28 to 50 days of consumption)
  4. c Specific MUFA content not known
  5. d weight : weight proportion