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Table 4 Fasting blood parameters

From: Impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adults

  Unit PRE POST Reference range P-value
Glucose and lipids
 Glucose mg/dl 91.4 ± 7.3 88.7 ± 5.3 74–106 0.009
 TG mg/dl 64 (38–212) 62 (39–172) <150 0.089
 HDL-C mg/dl 71.3 ± 14.3 73.6 ± 15.6 >40 0.088
 LDL-C mg/dl 110.9 ± 31.3 122.8 ± 33.6 <160 0.001
 TC mg/dl 186.5 ± 34.7 195.3 ± 34.7 <200 0.019
 LDL-C/HDL-C   1.47 (0.50–3.62) 1.58 (0.56–2.92) <4.5 0.084
 TG/HDL-C   0.89 (0.43–4.24) 0.76 (0.48–3.37) <2 0.039
Hormones
 TSH μU/ml 1.81 (0.01–7.26) 1.87 (0.15–10.29) 0.27–4.20 0.202
 fT3 pmol/l 4.91 (3.84–10.87) 4.11 (2.91–8.80) 3.4–6.8 <0.001
 fT4 pmol/l 15.7 (11.9–37.1) 16.4 (12.6–36.2) 10.6–22.7 0.008
 Insulin pmol/l 55.3 ± 23.7 43.0 ± 19.7 18–173 0.001
 IGF-1 ng/ml 175 (52–427) 140 (31–337) 72–457 <0.001
Liver and kidney parameters
 CRP mg/l 0 (0–11) 0 (0–21) <5 0.327
 Albumin g/dl 4.51 ± 0.24 4.55 ± 0.24 3.5–5.2 0.215
 GOT U/l 21 (12–43) 23 (12–51) 10–50 0.410
 GPT U/l 19 (12–37) 22 (12–57) 10–50 0.012
 Alkaline Phosphatase U/l 56.3 ± 17.0 52.1 ± 15.3 35–130 0.001
 Total bilirubin mg/dl 0.5 (0.2–2.2) 0.4 (0.2–1.4) <0.9–1.4 0.088
 Creatinine mg/dl 0.89 ± 0.13 0.88 ± 0.15 0.51–1.17 0.185
 Urea mg/dl 30.3 ± 8.8 34.9 ± 9.3 12.8–42.8 <0.001
 Uric acid mg/dl 4.1 (2.9–7.0) 4.5 (2.3–8.1) 2.4–7 0.001
Micronutrients
 Potassium mmol/l 4.4 (3.6–5.4) 4.3 (3.8–5.2) 3.5–5.1 0.180
 Calcium mg/dl 2.34 ± 0.08 2.33 ± 0.07 2.15–2.50 0.411
 Magnesium mmol/l 0.82 ± 0.05 0.82 ± 0.06 0.66–1.07 0.721
 Iron μg/dl 100.9 ± 50.0 77.3 ± 32.2 37–158 0.002
 Folic acid ng/ml 7.81 ± 3.32 10.04 ± 3.92 4.6–18.7 <0.001
Blood count
 Leucocytes 103/μl 5.73 (3.44–11.07) 5.66 (2.90–11.58) 3.9–10.4 0.457
 Thrombocytes 103/μl 255.8 ± 52.8 240.6 ± 53.4 146–391 0.002
 Erythrocytes 106/μl 4.66 ± 0.32 4.72 ± 0.31 4.0–5.8 0.056
 Haemoglobin g/dl 13.9 ± 1.0 14.1 ± 0.9 11.6–17.6 0.068
 Haematocrit % 40.3 ± 2.7 40.7 ± 2.6 34.6–50.6 0.163
 MCH pg 29.8 ± 1.1 29.8 ± 1.1 27–34 0.415
 MCHC g/dl 34.4 (32.5–37.1) 34.4 (32.7–36.0) 31.5–36.3 0.333
 MCV 10−9μl 86.7 ± 3.4 86.3 ± 3.4 81–100 0.061
  1. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, C cholesterol, GOT glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, HDL high-density lipoprotein, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor 1, LDL low-density lipoprotein, MCH mean corpuscular haemoglobin, MCHC mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, MCV mean corpuscular volume, fT3 free triiodothyronine, fT4 free thyroxine, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, TSH thyroid stimulating hormone