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Table 3 Concentrations of postprandial bone biomarkers and inflammatory markers (Mean ± SD)

From: The role of a dairy fraction rich in milk fat globule membrane in the suppression of postprandial inflammatory markers and bone turnover in obese and overweight adults: an exploratory study

  Postprandial time point    
  0 hour 1 hour 3 hour 6 hour Treatment effect p-value Time effect p-value Time x treatment interaction p-value
C1CP (ng/ml)      0.093 0.084 0.195
 PO + MFGM 134.4 ± 140.6 131.1 ± 134.1 128.1 ± 119.9 131.3 ± 127.7    
 PO 122.0 ± 133.7 127.1 ± 138.7 117.5 ± 124.2 127.9 ± 152.0    
 WC + MFGM 130.0 ± 135.2 126.2 ± 137.0 130.1 ± 146.5 129.3 ± 125.9    
 WC 153.1 ± 269.9 137.8 ± 201.7 123.6 ± 133.8 129.2 ± 146.3    
CTX (ng/ml)      0.0001 <0.0001 <.0001
 PO + MFGM 0.57 ± 0.27 0.33 ± 0.14 0.24 ± 0.12 0.32 ± 0.16    
 PO 0.53 ± 0.22 0.31 ± 0.13 0.24 ± 0.12 0.44 ± 0.22    
 WC + MFGM 0.56 ± 0.27 0.33 ± 0.16 0.22 ± 0.11 0.26 ± 0.14    
 WC 0.55 ± 0.26 0.31 ± 0.11 0.20 ± 0.09 0.38 ± 0.20    
IL-6 (pg/ml)      0.449 <0.0001 0.975
 PO + MFGM 0.72 ± 1.37 0.59 ± 1.26 0.54 ± 0.98 0.76 ± 1.40    
 PO 0.74 ± 1.08 0.59 ± 0.87 0.61 ± 1.09 0.76 ± 1.16    
 WC + MFGM 0.78 ± 1.43 0.63 ± 1.27 0.60 ± 1.20 0.86 ± 1.48    
 WC 0.70 ± 1.10 0.63 ± 1.18 0.60 ± 1.13 0.87 ± 1.51    
IL-18 (pg/ml)      0.671 <0.0001 0.245
 PO + MFGM 11.11 ± 3.33 11.32 ± 3.32 10.72 ± 2.74 10.80 ± 3.39    
 PO 11.24 ± 3.10 10.51 ± 3.34 9.629 ± 3.15 10.96 ± 2.95    
 WC + MFGM 11.79 ± 3.64 10.63 ± 4.11 10.40 ± 3.67 10.81 ± 3.17    
 WC 11.05 ± 3.44 10.98 ± 3.03 10.09 ± 2.69 10.18 ± 3.06    
TNFα (pg/ml)      0.679 <0.0001 0.303
 PO + MFGM 2.34 ± 0.67 2.36 ± 0.66 2.27 ± 0.62 2.22 ± 0.68    
 PO 2.49 ± 0.71 2.36 ± 0.56 2.29 ± 0.63 2.36 ± 0.64    
 WC + MFGM 2.54 ± 0.83 2.36 ± 0.81 2.32 ± 0.81 2.32 ± 0.73    
 WC 2.44 ± 0.70 2.38 ± 0.67 2.27 ± 0.57 2.32 ± 0.63    
CRP (mg/l)      0.207 <0.0001 0.608
 PO + MFGM 1.49 ± 0.85 1.51 ± 0.86 1.46 ± 0.85 1.52 ± 0.87    
 PO 1.55 ± 0.86 1.65 ± 0.87 1.58 ± 0.88 1.62 ± 0.87    
 WC + MFGM 1.49 ± 0.85 1.56 ± 0.90 1.51 ± 0.87 1.56 ± 0.88    
 WC 1.49 ± 0.83 1.58 ± 0.90 1.50 ± 0.84 1.53 ± 0.86    
IL-10 (pg/ml)      0.278 0.206 0.012
 PO + MFGM 0.49 ± 1.17 0.52 ± 1.19 0.52 ± 1.12 0.57 ± 1.14    
 PO 0.56 ± 1.37 0.54 ± 1.35 0.54 ± 1.22 0.51 ± 1.32    
 WC + MFGM 0.52 ± 1.08 0.57 ± 1.09 0.57 ± 1.04 0.58 ± 1.17    
 WC 0.52 ± 1.13 0.58 ± 1.15 0.58 ± 1.21 0.55 ± 1.28    
sICAM (mg/l)      0.168 <0.0001 0.114
 PO + MFGM 0.96 ± 0.51 0.97 ± 0.51 0.95 ± 0.51 0.97 ± 0.53    
 PO 0.97 ± 0.51 1.058 ± 0.54 1.00 ± 0.51 1.044 ± 0.54    
 WC + MFGM 0.93 ± 0.50 0.99 ± 0.53 0.97 ± 0.54 0.97 ± 0.51    
 WC 0.92 ± 0.48 1.00 ± 0.52 0.96 ± 0.49 0.96 ± 0.49    
  1. Actual (untransformed) values are presented here; analysis was done on the transformed data. N = 36
  2. Test meals: palm oil plus milk fat globule membrane (PO + MFGM), palm oil (PO), whipping cream plus milk fat globule membrane (WC + MFGM), whipping cream (WC)
  3. Bone variables: type 1 C-terminal collagen propeptide (C1CP), C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX)
  4. Inflammatory variables: interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-10 (IL10), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)