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Table 2 Effects of weight loss and dietary composition during weight loss maintenance on fasting hormone levels*

From: Hepatic, adipocyte, enteric and pancreatic hormones: response to dietary macronutrient composition and relationship with metabolism

  Pre-Weight Loss Baseline (N = 21) Weight Loss Maintenance P-value for overall diet intervention effect* P-value for differential effect of diet**
Low Fat (N = 21) Low Glycemic Index (N = 21) Very Low Carbohydrate (N = 21)
Hepatic and/or adipose hormones
 FGF-21 (pg/mL)a 94.1 ± 18.0 44.8 ± 6.1 35.5 ± 7.8 17.5 ± 3.0 <0.0001 0.0002
 Change from baseline   -49.4 ± 16.6 -58.6 ± 16.3 -76.7 ± 18.2   
 Chemerin (ng/mL) 54.4 ± 3.4 46.6 ± 3.5 44.8 ± 3.0 45.9 ± 2.7 0.001 0.66
 Change from baseline   −7.9 ± 2.1 −9.7 ± 2.1 −8.5 ± 2.4   
 Heme-oxygenase 1 (ng/mL)a 0.69 ± 0.21 1.09 ± 0.44 1.66 ± 0.82 1.18 ± 0.47 0.02 0.07
 Change from baseline   0.40 ± 0.26 0.98 ± 0.63 0.49 ± 0.29   
 Total bile acids (umol/L) 10.7 ± 1.6 10.1 ± 1.4 9.4 ± 0.9 11.2 ± 1.9 0.89 0.45
 Change from baseline   −0.6 ± 1.3 −1.3 ± 1.3 0.5 ± 1.7   
Pancreatic hormones
 Insulin (mIU/L)a 11.4 ± 1.4 6.1 ± 0.5 5.4 ± 0.4 5.2 ± 0.6 <0.0001 0.004
 Change from baseline   −5.3 ± 1.1 −6.0 ± 1.1 −6.1 ± 1.0   
 Amylin (pg/mL) 172 ± 50 179 ± 48 153 ± 49 164 ± 50 0.77 0.49
 Change from baseline   6 ± 24 −20 ± 30 −9 ± 29   
 SFRP-4 (pg/mL) 1086 ± 167 1307 ± 181 1346 ± 211 1220 ± 205 0.24 0.74
 Change from baseline   196 ± 190 236 ± 208 110 ± 188   
Enteric hormones
 Ghrelin (pg/mL)a 11.5 ± 0.9 18.6 ± 2.9 18.8 ± 3.7 21.0 ± 2.9 0.0003 0.25
 Change from baseline   7.1 ± 2.9 7.3 ± 3.5 9.5 ± 2.9   
 GIP (pg/mL) 12.8 ± 1.7 14.4 ± 2.1 13.6 ± 3.1 13.2 ± 2.7 0.30 0.90
 Change from baseline   1.6 ± 1.4 0.9 ± 2.4 0.5 ± 2.0   
 PYY (pg/mL)a 46.1 ± 10.5 39.5 ± 4.5 36.1 ± 4.2 45.7 ± 10.2 0.75 0.33
 Change from baseline   −6.6 ± 8.1 −10.0 ± 7.3 −0.4 ± 4.1   
Muscular hormones
 Irisin (ng/mL)a 127.5 ± 38.5 96.4 ± 18.1 90.0 ± 16.5 98.3 ± 15.9 0.21 0.23
 Change from baseline   −31.0 ± 29.4 —37.5 ± 30.2 −29.2 ± 31.1   
  1. Results reported as mean ± SEM. N = 21 for all variables except for HO-1 (N = 16) and irisin (N = 18)
  2. *P-value tests the hypothesis that the average of the three changes is zero. Analyses adjusted for age, gender, baseline BMI, diet composition and diet sequence
  3. **Analyses adjusted for age, gender, change in BMI, diet composition and diet sequence
  4. aResults analyzed as log-transformed data