Skip to main content

Table 1 The cardioprotective effect of rooibos, its flavonoids and a phenylpropenoic acid

From: Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and heart disease-cardioprotective effects of rooibos flavonoids and phenylpyruvic acid-2-O-β-D-glucoside

Rooibos/compounds Model Experimental outcome References
Rooibos Aqueous extract of fermented rooibos on cardiomyocytes isolated from diabetic rats Prevented experimentally induced oxidative stress and ischemia [21]
Fermented rooibos tea for 6 weeks in human subjects at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) Reduced CVD risk by improving lipid profile and redox status [59]
Aqueous extract of fermented rooibos in endothelial cells from human umbilical veins (HUVECs) Prevented vascular-induced inflammation by enhancing nitric oxide production [86, 92, 93]
Aqueous extract of fermented rooibos on non-diabetic rats Acted as a bronchodilator, antispasmodic and blood pressure lowering effects [97]
Fermented rooibos tea in healthy human subjects Prevented myocardial infarction by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) [98,99,100]
Aqueous extracts of fermented and unfermented rooibos in non-diabetic rats Reversed ischemia-reperfusion injury [101]
Aspalathin and nothofagin Aspalathin and nothofagin on high glucose-induced vascular in HUVECs and mice Prevented inflammation and thrombosis by suppressing TNF-α, IL-6 and NF-κB [118, 119]
Aspalathin in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose and cardiomyocytes isolated from insulin resistant rats Prevented cell apoptosis by reducing phosphorylation of AMPK; decreasing inflammation and lipid accumulation; and attenuated oxidative damage via increasing Nrf2 expression [73, 124,125,126]
Orientin and isoorientin Orientin on isolated hearts of nondiabetic rats, rabbits and guinea pigs as well as H9c2 cells Prevented ischemia-reperfusion injury and platelet aggregation by inhibiting mPTP formation and apoptosis [137,138,139]
Orientin and isoorientin Orientin on rats Prevented myocardial infarction [134]
  Isoorientin in low density lipoprotein isolated from human plasma Prevented formation of atherosclerotic lesions by inhibiting low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation [135]
  Orientin in non-diabetic rats Attenuated ventricular remodeling associated with myocardial infarction [136]
  Orientin and isoorientin in lipopolysaccharide-induced reperfusion injury Protected vascular barrier integrity by inhibiting hyperpermeability [223]
Vitexin and isovitexin Vitexin on primary cardiomyocytes and isolated rat hearts and on rats Prevented ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing calcium overload and modulating ERK1/2 signaling and MAPK pathway [146, 149, 224]
Vitexin on primary rat cardiomyocytes Prevented cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting calcineurin and CaMKII signaling pathways [151]
Vitexin on dogs Reduced aortic pressure, arterial and pulmonary capillary pressure and heart rate [150, 225]
Vitexin on rats Attenuated acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis [226]
Luteolin and chrysoeriol Luteolin on isolated rat cardiomyocytes, rabbit hearts and anesthetized pigs Prevented ischemia-reperfusion injury and enhanced relative coronary flow [157, 159, 162]
Luteolin on rat endothelium-denuded aortic rings Induced vasorelaxion by regulating calcium and potassium channels and reducing oxidative stress [227]
Luteolin on vascular smooth muscle cells and rats Prevented hypertensive vascular remodeling [160]
Luteolin on diabetic and normal rats Alleviated vascular complications associated with insulin resistance through the Pparγ pathway [161]
Luteolin and chrysoeriol Luteolin-7-glucoside on isolated primary rat cardiomyocytes Prevented ischemia-reperfusion injury and increased of coronary flow [228]
Chrysoeriol in rats under anesthesia and H9c2 cells Reduced arterial blood pressure and protected against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity [97, 172]
Quercetin and rutin Quercetin on rats Protected against diabetic cardiomyopathy, autoimmune myocarditis, LDL-oxidation, and doxorubicin-induced lipid peroxidation [185,186,187,188,189,190,191,192]
  Quercetin in either endothelial cells or rats Presented antihypertensive potential and reduced cardiac hypertrophy by increasing antioxidant capacity [229,230,231,232,233]
Hyperoside and rutin Hyperoside in vitro and in vivo Protected against hyperglycemia induced inflammation [208]
  Hyperoside in ECV304 cells Prevented advanced glycation end products and promoted via the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) pathway [205]
  Hyperoxide in vitro and in vivo Hydrogen peroxide induced cell damage and ischemia reperfusion injury [209, 211, 212]
  Rutin on rats Protected against advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress and myocardial infarction [199, 234, 235]
Phenylpyruvic acid-2-O-β-D-glucoside (PPAG) PPAG on high-glucose exposed H9c2 cells Protected against substrate impairment, mitochondrial depolarization and cell apoptosis [221]