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Table 1 Characteristics of studied groups

From: Serum metabolites in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease development or reversion; a targeted metabolomic approach within the PREDIMED trial

Characteristics Group 1 (n = 15) Group 2 (n = 15) Group 3 (n = 15)
  Basal Final Change Basal Final Change Basal Final Change
Age (years) 63.47 ± 6.59 NA NA 65.13 ± 5.74 NA NA 64.07 ± 6.94 NA NA
MedScore 9.73 ± 1.83 10.31 ± 1.88 0.31 ± 2.81 9.43 ± 2.10 11.43 ± 1.22 1.85 ± 1.72 9.53 ± 2.16 10.47 ± 1.59 0.93 ± 2.49
Alcohol (g) 16.30 ± 24.10 10.77 ± 11.63 −5.70 ± 15.71 29.93 ± 28.58 12.75 ± 10.71 −12.89 ± 24.40b,c 7.48 ± 10.11 11.76 ± 13.07 4.28 ± 6.82
BMI (kg/m2) 27.36 ± 2.10 27.21 ± 3.38 −0.08 ± 2.04 28.65 ± 3.39 29.68 ± 3.72 0.91 ± 1.94 29.08 ± 2.84 28.18 ± 3.12 −0.90 ± 1.98
WC (cm) 97.29 ± 9.41 99.09 ± 12.11 1.30 ± 6.11 98.43 ± 10.28 102.07 ± 11.82 2.23 ± 7.86 100.80 ± 11.69 99.20 ± 12.52 −1.60 ± 7.33
AST (U/L) 20.36 ± 5.84 17.82 ± 6.70a,b −0.91 ± 6.93 21.14 ± 6.51 26.14 ± 8.20b,c 5.00 ± 7.68 21.60 ± 11.41 19.00 ± 6.03 −2.60 ± 14.12
AST/ALT 0.61 ± 0.28a,b/a,c 0.49 ± 0.19a,b/a,c −0.08 ± 0.20 0.80 ± 0.23 0.88 ± 0.16 0.08 ± 0.18b,c 0.97 ± 0.25 0.84 ± 0.37 −0.13 ± 0.26
Glu (mg/dL) 131.33 ± 49.75 108.16 ± 19.73 −18.50 ± 38.10 124.97 ± 42.31 122.07 ± 59.13 −2.90 ± 61.46 138.38 ± 46.72 156.53 ± 62.44 18.14 ± 54.08
TG (mg/dL) 158.33 ± 81.12 158.00 ± 51.73 4.83 ± 53.32 117.98 ± 53.23 160.78 ± 98.12 42.80 ± 78.71 157.54 ± 106.38 150.13 ± 110.68 −7.41 ± 137.09
TC (mg/dL) 229.43 ± 49.23 201.85 ± 41.16 −30.68 ± 55.85 207.64 ± 46.53 195.21 ± 25.70 −12.43 ± 45.39 208.07 ± 45.39 190.15 ± 36.21 −17.92 ± 36.83
HDL-C (mg/dL) 49.26 ± 11.86 45.90 ± 12.29 −3.32 ± 10.33 56.38 ± 12.54 53.71 ± 11.21 −2.67 ± 10.04 48.41 ± 8.82 55.74 ± 16.84 6.52 ± 14.54
LDL-C (mg/dL) 132.97 ± 28.29 114.67 ± 32.60 −20.05 ± 26.78 127.79 ± 39.65 110.03 ± 21.69 −17.77 ± 48.77 121.14 ± 33.85 105.45 ± 29.71 −15.22 ± 23.65
Diabetes 40.0% NA NA 60.0% NA NA 60% NA NA
Hypercholest 66.7% NA NA 66.7% NA NA 46.7% NA NA
Hypertension 93.3% NA NA 80.0% NA NA 80% NA NA
  1. Data are expressed as means ± SD or percentage
  2. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and Pearson Chi-Square test for categorical variables
  3. Microalbuminuria changes in characteristics of studied groups at the end of the follow-up were excluded from analysis, because there were only few cases, namely 18 out of 45
  4. Abbreviations: NA Not Available, MedScore Mediterranean Diet Score, BMI Body Mass Index, WC Waist Circumference, AST aspartate aminotransferase, Glu Glucose, TC Total cholesterol, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Hypercholest Hypercholesterolemia
  5. a,b,c: Identical superscript letters denote significant differences between groups (p < 0.05 after post-hoc multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni rule in the case of normally distributed continuous variables, Mann-Whitney test in the case of non- normally distributed continuous variables)
  6. Group 1 Participants did not meet NAFLD criteria at the baseline and during the follow-up
  7. Group 2 Participantsdid not meet NAFLD criteria at baseline, but met NAFLD criteria during the follow-up
  8. Group 3 Participants met NAFLD criteria at baseline, but not during the follow-up
  9. a,bp Value <0.05 “Group 1” vs. “Group 2”
  10. a,c p Value <0.05 “Group 1” vs. “Group 3”
  11. b,c p Value <0.05 “Group 2” vs. “Group 3”