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Table 2 The effect of vitamin D plus omega-3 fatty acids supplementations on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative in gestational diabetes patients1

From: The effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes

  Placebo
(n = 30)
Vitamin D2
(n = 30)
Omega-33
(n = 30)
Vitamin D+ omega-34(n = 30) P5
Serum 25-OH-vitamin D (ng/mL)
 Baseline 14.9 ± 3.2 13.6 ± 3.7 15.6 ± 4.0 14.2 ± 2.9 0.156
 End 14.7 ± 3.2 31.7 ± 6.8 16.3 ± 4.6 33.8 ± 4.6 <0.001
 Change -0.2 ± 1.7 18.1 ± 4.4b 0.7 ± 2.8 19.5 ± 3.2b <0.001
hs-CRP (mg/L)
 Baseline 7.2 ± 3.9 7.2 ± 6.4 8.0 ± 6.2 8.3 ± 4.6 0.815
 End 8.1 ± 4.0 6.4 ± 3.9 6.7 ± 5.9 6.3 ± 4.7 0.407
 Change 0.9 ± 2.7 -0.8 ± 4.4 −1.3 ± 2.4 −2.0 ± 3.3a 0.008
NO (μmol/L)
 Baseline 51.1 ± 13.0 54.1 ± 4.9 46.9 ± 4.9 46.1 ± 5.2 <0.001
 End 52.5 ± 15.4 60.0 ± 7.9 51.5 ± 7.3 48.4 ± 5.1 <0.001
 Change 1.4 ± 11.4 5.9 ± 9.0 4.6 ± 9.2 2.3 ± 7.5 0.230
TAC (mmol/L)
 Baseline 748.1 ± 109.7 807.2 ± 96.6 811.0 ± 54.3 906.4 ± 73.9 <0.001
 End 749.1 ± 91.2 862.3 ± 91.9 899.4 ± 112.8 998.5 ± 82.1 <0.001
 Change 1.0 ± 90.8 55.1 ± 123.6 88.4 ± 95.2a 92.1 ± 70.1a 0.001
GSH (μmol/L)
 Baseline 491.8 ± 173.5 456.6 ± 67.8 532.5 ± 49.6 518.3 ± 64.2 0.020
 End 484.0 ± 161.2 479.6 ± 59.7 562.5 ± 57.8 594.2 ± 60.9 <0.001
 Change −7.8 ± 126.5 23.0 ± 62.3 30.0 ± 66.5 75.9 ± 86.7a 0.005
MDA (μmol/L)
 Baseline 3.2 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 0.4 3.5 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.5 <0.001
 End 3.7 ± 1.6 2.5 ± 0.3 3.2 ± 0.4 2.5 ± 0.3 <0.001
 Change 0.5 ± 1.4 −0.2 ± 0.5a −0.3 ± 0.9a −0.5 ± 0.5a <0.001
  1. 1Data are means ± SDs
  2. 2Receiving 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks plus placebo for omega-3 fatty acids twice a day
  3. 3Receiving 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids (180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA) twice a day plus placebo for vitamin D every 2 weeks
  4. 4Receiving 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks plus 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids twice a day
  5. 5Obtained from ANOVA test
  6. GSH, glutathione; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; MDA, malondialdehyde; NO, nitric oxide; TAC, total antioxidant capacity
  7. aSignificant difference with the placebo group
  8. bSignificant difference with the placebo and omega-3 fatty acids groups