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Table 3 Adjusted changes in metabolic variables in gestational diabetes patients that received either vitamin D plus omega-3 fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D supplements or placebo1

From: The effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes

  Placebo
(n = 30)
Vitamin D 2
(n = 30)
Omega-33
(n = 30)
Vitamin D+ omega-34
(n = 30)
P5
Serum 25-OH-vitamin D (ng/mL) −0.2 ± 0.6 18.2 ± 0.6 0.7 ± 0.6 19.5 ± 0.6 <0.001
hs-CRP (mg/L) 0.8 ± 0.5 −1.0 ± 0.5 −1.2 ± 0.5 −1.9 ± 0.5 0.004
NO (μmol/L) 1.9 ± 1.6 7.9 ± 1.6 3.3 ± 1.6 1.0 ± 1.6 0.020
TAC (mmol/L) −35.5 ± 17.1 49.1 ± 15.9 85.5 ± 15.8 137.6 ± 17.8 <0.001
GSH (μmol/L) −12.4 ± 14.2 5.6 ± 14.5 45.2 ± 14.4 83.8 ± 14.3 <0.001
MDA (μmol/L) 0.5 ± 0.1 −0.4 ± 0.2 −0.1 ± 0.2 −0.5 ± 0.1 <0.001
  1. 1All values are means ± SEs. Values are adjusted for baseline values of parameters of biochemical, age and baseline BMI
  2. 2Receiving 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks plus placebo for omega-3 fatty acids twice a day
  3. 3Receiving 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids (180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA) twice a day plus placebo for vitamin D every 2 weeks
  4. 4Receiving 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks plus 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids twice a day
  5. 5Obtained from ANCOVA test
  6. GSH, glutathione; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; MDA, malondialdehyde; NO, nitric oxide; TAC, total antioxidant capacity