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Table 4 The association of vitamin D plus omega-3 fatty acids supplementation with pregnancy outcomes

From: The effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes

  Placebo group
(n = 30)
Vitamin D 2
(n = 30)
Omega-33
(n = 30)
Vitamin D+ omega-34
(n = 30)
P5
Cesarean section (%) 11 (36.7) 9 (30.0) 9 (30.0) 8 (26.7) 0.863
Preterm delivery (%) 1 (3.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.388
Pre-eclampsia (%) 3 (10.0) 3 (10.0) 2 (6.7) 3 (10.0) 0.960
Polyhydramnios (%) 2 (6.6) 2 (6.6) 2 (6.6) 2 (6.6) >0.999
Macrosomia > 4000 g (%) 5 (16.7) 2 (6.7) 3 (10.0) 2 (6.7) 0.525
Gestational age (weeks) 39.1 ± 1.1 39.2 ± 1.0 39.0 ± 1.4 39.3 ± 0.9 0.658
Newborns’ weight (g) 3323.0 ± 407.1 3308.3 ± 604.0 3475.0 ± 395.2 3311.7 ± 502.2 0.480
Newborns’ length (cm) 50.4 ± 1.1 50.2 ± 3.0 51.3 ± 2.1 49.9 ± 2.7 0.103
Newborns’ head circumference (cm) 35.7 ± 1.3 35.9 ± 2.9 35.5 ± 1.4 35.3 ± 2.7 0.744
1- min Apgar score 8.8 ± 0.4 8.7 ± 0.4 8.7 ± 0.4 8.8 ± 0.4 0.779
5- min Apgar score 9.8 ± 0.4 9.7 ± 0.4 9.7 ± 0.4 9.8 ± 0.4 0.779
Newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia (%) 12 (40.0) 6 (20.0) 10 (33.3) 3 (10.0) 0.037
Newborns’ hospitalization (%) 12 (40.0) 6 (20.0) 10 (33.3) 3 (10.0) 0.037
Newborns’ hypoglycemia (%) 6 (20.0) 4 (13.3) 5 (16.7) 4 (13.3) 0.876
  1. Values are means ± SDs for continuous measures and are number (%) for dichotomous variables
  2. Obtained from Pearson Chi-square test
  3. 2Receiving 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks plus placebo for omega-3 fatty acids twice a day
  4. 3Receiving 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids (180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA) twice a day plus placebo for vitamin D every 2 weeks
  5. 4Receiving 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks plus 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids twice a day
  6. 5Obtained from ANOVA test