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Table 2 Effects of scFOS/OF supplementation on glucose homeostasis in obese or diabetic rodents

From: Fructo-oligosaccharides and glucose homeostasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis in animal models

Animal model Diet FOS dose Duration Fasting condition Postprandial condition Other metabolic results Microbiota analysis (yes/no) Included in meta-analysis (yes/no) References
G I Method G I
Standard diet: less than 20% of energy provided by fat
 Male Obese fa/fa Zucker rats 7% E fat, 73% E CHO 10% OF 10 w = = - Fed (tail vein) - OGTT - Fed (cava and portal veins) - = - = - ↓ - ND - = - = = PP, TG and Chol (cava and portal veins) ↓ hepatic TG and PP NO YES [39]
 Female Obese Zucker rats 9.8% E fat, 77.5% E CHO 5% scFOS 100 d = ND ND ND = TG and Chol = HbA1C NO YES [20]
 Male Sprague-Dawley rats, DIO 9.8% E fat, 77.5% E CHO 3% OF 6 w = = OGTT = = ↑ PYY OGTT and AUC PYY = GLP-1 = liver TG YES YES [17]
 Male Sprague-Dawley rats, DIO 9.8% E fat, 77.5% E CHO 10% OF 8 w = OGTT ↓ 90 min ↓ leptin OGTT (AUC leptin) ↑ fasting PYY and AUC PYY ↑ fasting portal GLP-1 YES YES [14]
 Diabetes-prone BB rats 16.4% E fat, 65.1% E CHO 5% OF 160 d =a ND ND ND ND ND NO NO [84]
 Male Wistar rats – Streptozotocin 7% E fat, 73% E CHO 10% OF 6 w ND ND - OGTT - Fed - ↓ - ↓ - ↑ - ↑ ↑ pancreatic insulin and % beta cells (= beta cell mass) ↑ portal and colon GLP-1 ↑ colon proglucagon and PC1 mRNA (= in ileum) NO YES [37]
 Male Wistar rats – PX - 407 9.8% E fat, 77.5% E CHO 10% or 15% scFOS 6 w ND ND ND ND ↑ caecal GLP-1 YES NO [56]
High-fat diet: 20 to 60% of energy provided by fat
 Male Sprague Dawley rats, DIO g/100 g: casein (20.0), sucrose (49.9), soybean oil (10.0), lard (10.0) 10% OF 7 w ND ND OGTT = ↓ leptin, ghrelin, GIP OGTT ↑ GLP-1 OGTT ↓ plasma DDP4 YES YES [24]
 Male Wistar rats – Streptozotocin 20.4% E fat, 59.9% E CHO 10% scFOS 2–6 w ↓ (after 2, 4 and 6 w) ND ND ND ND ↓ urinary glucose excretion (after 4, 5 and 6 w) ↓ plasma cholesterol, creatinine and urea YES YES [19]
High-fat diet: more than 60% of energy provided by fat
Ob/ob C57BL/6 mice 60% E fat, 20% E CHO 10% OF 5 w ND OGTT ND ↓ plasma TG, LPS ↑ plasma GLP-1 and colon proglucagon mRNA ↑ colon L-cells number YES YES [18]
  1. AUC area under the curve, CHO carbohydrates, Chol cholesterol, d days, DIO diet-induced obesity, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, E energy, FOS fructo-oligosaccharides, G glucose, I insulin, LPS lipopolysaccharide, ND no data, OF oligofructose, PP phospholipids, scFOS short-chain fructooligosaccharides, TG triglycerides, w weeks
  2. aFed condition not clearly indicated in the study