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Table 3 Recent published trials on Vitamin D supplementation and HCC

From: Current therapies in alleviating liver disorders and cancers with a special focus on the potential of vitamin D

Trial Results Reference
Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with certain circulating blood parameters in Cirrhotic Patients. Though supplementation of vitamin D considerably enhances serum levels of 25(OH) D, no significant effect either on liver function tests and fibrosis or on PTH and mineral metabolites was observed. [201]
Gene polymorphisms of the vitamin d receptor may prove a risk factor for development of HCC. In chronic hepatitis C patients, the role of VDR ApoI polymorphism is crucial in the development of HCC [202]
25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency as a prognostic marker in patients with HCC. 25(OH) D3 is a marker metabolite for poor consequences and its deficiency is associated with advanced progression of HCC. [203]
Association between circulating vitamin D levels and the risk of developing HCC amongst Europeans. There is an inverse association between the 25(OH) D serum concentrations and the risk of HCC. [204]
Mechanistic role of 1, 25(OH) 2D3 in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Decreased expression of HDAC2 and increased expression of p21 (WAF1/Cip1), repressed the progression of HCC on administration of 1, 25(OH) 2D3 suggesting a therapeutic role of the vitamin in potential drug developments. [205]
Tapping the 25(OH) D-induced cell growth inhibition potential for future targeted therapy in HCC patients. 25(OH)D and CYP27B1 gene transfection therapy could well be targeted for future HCC management studies [206]
Effect of SNPs in VDR and DBP genes on HBV linked HCC risk amongst Chinese. Polymorphisms of VDR rs2228570 and DBP rs7041 may be responsible for an increased susceptibility to HBV-related HCC amongst Chinese residents. [22]
Association of vitamin D and cytokine production in HCC Up-regulation of p27(kip1) expression in immune cells and reduction in the production of cytokines may contribute towards the inhibition of HCC progression on administration of vitamin D [207]
Use of vitamin D, IL-6, and IL-17 concentrations as potential biomarkers in HCC patients for a more favorable prognosis Vitamin D and the cytokines IL-6and IL-7 could be additionally used as prognostic markers in HCV and cirrhotic patients to suppress the development of HCC in them. [208]
Effect of vitamin D supplementation on levels of CYP24A1 mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. In-vitro supplementation of 1, 25(OH) (2) D (3) results in marked increases of CYP24A1 mRNA expression in few, though not all, human HCC lines. [209]