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Table 2 Characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic constipation by treatment group at baseline

From: A randomized trial of the effects of flaxseed to manage constipation, weight, glycemia, and lipids in constipated patients with type 2 diabetes

Characteristics Flaxseed Placebo P value
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Number of patients 26 27
Age (years) 55.7 (11.6) 55.9 (8.7) 0.955
Years since diabetes diagnosis 8.7 (3.9) 8.3 (5.3) 0.803
  No. (%)  
Constipation symptoms
 Straining 17 (65.4) 9 (33.3) 0.032
 Hard stool 22 (84.6) 14 (51.9) 0.049
 Pain with bowel movement 13 (50.0) 2 (7.4) 0.004
 Feeling of incomplete evacuation 15 (57.7) 7 (25.9) 0.059
 Digital maneuver 4 (15.4) 1 (3.7) 0.427
 Fleeing of blockage 10 (38.5) 6 (22.2) 0.285
  < 3 bowel movements/week 18 (69.2) 10 (37.0) 0.070
Therapeutic regimen
 Insulin 11 (42.3) 11 (40.7) 0.908
 Metformin 21 (80.8) 20 (74.1) 0.560
 Glibenclamide 3 (11.5) 8 (29.6) 0.104
 Losartan 12 (46.2) 8 (29.6) 0.215
 Metoral 2 (7.7) 1 (3.9) 0.530
 Aspirin 11 (42.3) 8 (29.6) 0.336
 Statin 12 (46.2) 15 (55.6) 0.494
BMI (kg/m2)
 Normal (BMI < 25) 4 (15.4) 8 (29.6) 0.396
 Overweight (BMI 25–29.9) 12 (46.2) 12 (44.4)
 Obese (BMI ≥ 30) 10 (38.5) 7 (25.9)
Gender
 Male 4 (15.4) 5 (18.5) 0.525
 Female 22 (84.6) 22 (81.5)
  1. LDLC low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDLC high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI body mass index