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Table 1 Effect of neonatal oral administration of oleanolic acid and or fructose on fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin concentration and HOMA-IR index in male rats fed a high fructose diet

From: The protective effect of neonatal oral administration of oleanolic acid against the subsequent development of fructose-induced metabolic dysfunction in male and female rats

Parameter DW + W DW + F OA + W OA + F HF + W HF + F OAHF + W OAHF + F
Glucose (mmol/L) 4.9 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 0.3 4.5 ± 0.5 4.7 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.4 a6.3 ± 0.7 4.8 ± 0.5 4.5 ± 1.1
Insulin (μU/mL) 45.3 ± 10.5 53.2 ± 10.2 44.6 ± 9.4 51.4 ± 8.7 39.8 ± 5.2 56.9 ± 7.9 41.9 ± 10.2 46.5 ± 16.5
HOMA-IR 0.24 ± 0.06 b0.33 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.05 0.27 ± 0.07 0.18 ± 0.03 c0.35 ± 0.12 0.22 ± 0.05 0.22 ± 0.07
  1. All data presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. abc Significant increase in glucose and abc HOMA-IR (P < 0.05) for groups receiving fructose late (DW + F) and a double hit (neonatally and in adulthood, HF + F) compared with other treatment groups. DW + W = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass of distilled water with DMSO (0.5% v/v) in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to plain drinking water post-weaning and throughout adulthood (male = 7; female = 7); DW + F = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass of distilled water with DMSO (0.5% v/v) in the neonatal period followed ad libitum access to 20% (w/v) fructose solution as drinking fluid in adulthood (male = 6; female = 6); OA + W = gavaged daily with 60 mg/kg body mass oleanolic acid in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to plain drinking water post-weaning and throughout adulthood (male = 8; female = 8); OA + F = gavaged with 60 mg/kg body mass oleanolic acid in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to 20% (w/v) fructose as drinking fluid in adulthood (male = 7; female = 8); HF + W = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass 20% (w/v) fructose solution in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to plain drinking water post-weaning and throughout adulthood (male = 6; female = 7); HF + F = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass 20% (w/v) fructose solution in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to 20% (w/v) fructose as drinking fluid in adulthood (male = 7; female = 8); OAHF + W = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass of a combination of oleanolic acid (60 mg/kg) and 20% (w/v) fructose solution in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to plain drinking water post-weaning and throughout adulthood (male = 7; female = 6); OAHF + F = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass of a combination of oleanolic acid (60 mg/kg) and 20% (w/v) fructose solution in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to 20% (w/v) fructose solution as drinking fluid in adulthood (male = 7; female = 7)