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Table 3 Associations between serum TMAO and choline levels with PLC risk stratified by selected factors

From: Trimethylamine N-oxide, a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of choline, is positively associated with the risk of primary liver cancer: a case-control study

   Q1 Combined middle half Q4 P -trend P -interaction
Serum TMAO
 HBV infectionb
  Yes n (Cases/Controls) 76/15 333/30 173/15   0.095
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 1.83 (0.89–3.78) 2.07 (0.91–4.74) 0.104
  No n (Cases/Controls) 8/152 53/306 28/153  
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 3.82 (1.63–8.94) 3.73 (1.50–9.30) 0.006
 Alcohol usingb
  Yes n (Cases/Controls) 13/21 121/43 52/21   0.777
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 2.54 (0.74–8.68) 3.44 (0.88–13.54) 0.092
  No n (Cases/Controls) 51/145 274/295 160/146  
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 3.10 (1.69–5.67) 3.57 (1.83–6.96) 0.001
 Smokingb
  Yes n (Cases/Controls) 41/68 175/136 86/68   0.024
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 1.32 (0.59–2.94) 1.47 (0.60–3.60) 0.418
  No n (Cases/Controls) 30/99 209/200 130/100  
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 3.92 (1.84–8.35) 4.88 (2.13–11.19) 0.001
 Sexb
  Men n (Cases/Controls) 74/140 312/287 183/142   0.166
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 2.04 (1.16–3.60) 2.28 (1.22–4.26) 0.016
  Women n (Cases/Controls) 7/25 52/52 43/25  
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 1.79 (0.38–8.30) 5.23 (1.05–26.10) 0.021
 Metabolic syndromeb
  Yes n (Cases/Controls) 14/43 75/88 39/43   0.473
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 3.04 (0.92–10.01) 3.45 (0.94–12.65) 0.095
  No n (Cases/Controls) 50/124 307/249 186/124  
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 2.50 (1.35–4.62) 2.83 (1.44–5.59) 0.006
Serum Choline
 HBV infectionb
  Yes n (Cases/Controls) 368/15 151/30 63/15   0.121
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 0.22 (0.11–0.46) 0.22 (0.09–0.50) < 0.001
  No n (Cases/Controls) 52/152 33/306 4/153  
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 0.24 (0.14–0.43) 0.05 (0.02–0.16) < 0.001
 Alcohol usingb
  Yes n (Cases/Controls) 137/21 36/43 13/21   0.145
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 0.13 (0.05–0.37) 0.21 (0.05–0.90) 0.001
  No n (Cases/Controls) 304/146 154/294 27/146  
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 0.34 (0.21–0.56) 0.13 (0.06–0.27) < 0.001
 Smokingb
  Yes n (Cases/Controls) 200/68 69/136 33/68   0.001
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 0.16 (0.08–0.34) 0.21 (0.08–0.53) < 0.001
  No n (Cases/Controls) 228/98 123/201 18/100  
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 0.37 (0.21–0.64) 0.12 (0.05–0.27) < 0.001
 Sexb
  Men n (Cases/Controls) 361/141 161/286 47/142   0.008
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 0.23 (0.14–0.38) 0.20 (0.10–0.38) < 0.001
  Women n (Cases/Controls) 69/25 30/52 3/25  
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 0.34 (0.11–1.10) 0.01 (0.00–0.08) < 0.001
 Metabolic syndromeb
  Yes n (Cases/Controls) 94/43 31/88 3/43   0.050
OR (95% CI) a 1.00 0.09 (0.03–0.26) 0.01 (0.00–0.10) < 0.001
  No n (Cases/Controls) 329/124 169/249 45/124  
OR (95% CI)a 1.00 0.32 (0.19–0.53) 0.20 (0.10–0.40) < 0.001
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, BMI, household income, occupation, marital status, smoking status, alcohol use, presence of metabolic syndrome, and HBV infection status
  2. bStratified factors were not included in the corresponding model