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Table 4 Dietary intakes of overweight/obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

From: Nano-curcumin improves glucose indices, lipids, inflammation, and Nesfatin in overweight and obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

Dietary intakes Nanocurcumin (n = 42) Mean(SD) Placebo (n = 42) Mean(SD) P-value
Energy (kcal) Baseline 2473.2(470.5) 2338.6(496.3) 0.2* 0.001**
1.5 Months 2089.9(412.9) 2267.0(468.4) 0.07
3 Months 2019.4(380.5) 2205.9(476.0) 0.05
Protein (g) Baseline 100.7(30.7) 97.1(32.7) 0.6 0.3
1.5 Months 93.7(24.9) 93.8(31.8) 0.8
3 Months 84.1(28.7) 92.9(31.4) 0.2
Protein (%) Baseline 16.3(3.7) 16.5(4.1) 0.7 0.2
1.5 Months 18.0(3.8) 16.4(3.9) 0.06
3 Months 16.6(4.8) 16.7(4.1) 0.8
Carbohydrate (g) Baseline 296.1(55.6) 280.5(81.9) 0.3 0.3
1.5 Months 253.8(68.9) 252.3(58.9) 0.9
3 Months 256.2(47.8) 266.0(73.3) 0.3
Carbohydrate (%) Baseline 48.5(7.7) % 47.8(9.0) % 0.7 0.5
1.5 Months 48.4(8.7) % 45.1(8.7) % 0.08
3 Months 51.2(7.4) % 48.1(8.0) % 0.07
Fat total (g) Baseline 103.1(32.8) 97.0(27.4) 0.3 0.001
1.5 Months 82.3(22.5) 102.4(31.1) 0.001
3 Months 78.7(20.6) 90.4(24.6) 0.02
Fat total (%) Baseline 37.00(6.9) % 37.5(7.4) % 0.7 0.1
1.5 Months 35.5(6.7) % 40.2(7.1) % 0.003
3 Months 34.8(4.9) % 37.0(6.6) % 0.09
Cholesterol (mg) Baseline 268.2(168.8) 282.3(178.7) 0.7 0.3
1.5 Months 273.9(150.8) 271.3(153.1) 0.9
3 Months 198.3(126.8) 263.9(125.6) 0.01
Saturated fat (g) Baseline 27.3(11.4) 25.5(9.2) 0.7 0.03
1.5 Months 22.5(7.2) 27.9(9.7) 0.005
3 Months 21.2(8.5) 25.6(9.8) 0.03
Monounsaturated fatty acid (g) Baseline 37.8(13.7) 36.1(9.8) 0.5 0.008
1.5 Months 30.4(8.9) 36.7(11.6) 0.006
3 Months 28.5(8.2) 33.7(9.0) 0.008
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (g) Baseline 26.4(13.6) 25.0(11.6) 0.5 0.06
1.5 Months 20.3(7.6) 26.6(15.3) 0.1
3 Months 20.2(6.8) 22.1(7.1) 0.4
Vitamin A (RAE) (μg) Baseline 316.8(210.7) 349.0(264.2) 0.6 0.6
1.5 Months 366.9(287.1) 319.7(270.6) 0.2
3 Months 416.2(378.3) 407.0(344.8) 0.4
Carotenoids (μg) Baseline 8009.3(6994.8) 7580.6(6601.1) 0.7 0.8
1.5 Months 8527.0(6850.7) 8068.6(6627.9) 0.7
3 Months 8184.9(6718.9) 8705.7(7724.2) 0.9
Vitamin C (mg) Baseline 97.0(84.4) 79.8(61.3) 0.4 0.9
1.5 Months 83.8(61.0) 74.2(69.4) 0.1
3 Months 95.1(73.5) 85.7(71.8) 0.2
Calcium (mg) Baseline 1086.0(502.2) 1115.7(521.2) 0.7 0.1
1.5 Months 1025.8(360.1) 910.2(473.1) 0.03
3 Months 897.8(408.9) 1076.8(475.1) 0.06
Iron (mg) Baseline 15.0(3.5) 14.8(5.0) 0.7 0.3
1.5 Months 14.1(4.0) 13.7(3.1) 0.6
3 Months 13.1(3.1) 14.1(4.0) 0.1
Vitamin D (μg) Baseline 1.0(1.8) 1.9(2.1) 0.01 0.02
1.5 Months 2.4(3.6) 1.1(1.6) 0.03
3 Months 2.1(3.5) 1.4(1.6) 0.9
Vitamin E (mg) Baseline 29.7(19.0) 28.7(13.1) 0.7 0.5
1.5 Months 24.9(9.2) 27.0(14.6) 0.4
3 Months 23.7(8.6) 26.9(8.2) 0.1
Vitamin B1 (mg) Baseline 1.9(0.3) 1.7(0.5) 0.08 0.01
1.5 Months 1.6(0.4) 1.5(0.4) 0.3
3 Months 1.5(0.3) 1.7(0.5) 0.06
Vitamin B2 (mg) Baseline 1.9(0.7) 2.0(0.8) 0.5 0.1
1.5 Months 1.9(0.6) 1.8(0.6) 0.1
3 Months 1.7(0.7) 1.9(0.7) 0.1
Vitamin B3 (mg) Baseline 30.3(13.2) 27.8(12.9) 0.4 0.4
1.5 Months 25.7(10.2) 27.2(14.7) 0.8
3 Months 24.2(10.6) 26.3(11.9) 0.4
Vitamin B6 (mg) Baseline 2.2(0.7) 1.9(0.6) 0.05 0.02
1.5 Months 1.8(0.5) 1.8(0.7) 0.5
3 Months 1.7(0.6) 1.9(0.6) 0.1
Folate (DFE) (μg) Baseline 504.0(222.7) 443.6(181.5) 0.3 0.04
1.5 Months 425.7(155.8) 426.5(149.7) 0.7
3 Months 413.0(126.7) 471.7(152.9) 0.05
Vitamin B12 (μg) Baseline 4.1(2.5) 4.4(2.5) 0.6 0.6
1.5 Months 5.1(2.8) 4.6(2.5) 0.5
3 Months 4.3(3.0) 4.4(2.4) 0.9
Vitamin K (μg) Baseline 148.6(224.4) 134.9(287.3) 0.1 0.8
1.5 Months 142.6(279.7) 86.5(135.3) 0.5
3 Months 192.2(366.3) 168.8(419.1) 0.6
Zinc (mg) Baseline 12.4(3.3) 12.7(3.7) 0.7 0.7
1.5 Months 12.6(4.0) 12.4(3.3) 0.7
3 Months 11.5(3.7) 12.1(4.5) 0.6
Selenium (μg) Baseline 113.7(34.2) 119.9(54.1) 0.7 0.2
1.5 Months 120.4(58.1) 99.2(37.9) 0.09
3 Months 112.0(57.7) 106.6(44.5) 0.6
Fiber total (g) Baseline 29.8(12.8) 31.0(16.1) 0.9 0.09
1.5 Months 30.1(16.5) 27.1(15.1) 0.5
3 Months 24.5(9.5) 31.5(15.6) 0.03
  1. *Total of the column: t-test or Mann-Whitney; **Total of the column: Two way repeated measures-ANOVA (TWRM-ANOVA)