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Table 1 Major subclasses of flavonoids with examples and studies on the effects of flavonoids on WAT browning

From: Flavonoids as inducers of white adipose tissue browning and thermogenesis: signalling pathways and molecular triggers

Compound Source In vivo/vitro Dose/Duration Effect Ref.
Flavonol
 Quercetin Onion-peel C57BL/6 mice, 3 T3-L1 adipocytes 5 mg/g diet, 8 W 0-240 μM AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1α↑ [24]
 Quercetin Onion peel HFD-induced metabolic Syndrome 0.8 mg/g diet Nrf2/HO-1↑, NF-kB↓, attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation [25]
 Quercetin Onion peel HFD-fed mice 1 mg/g, 12 W AMPK /Sirt1 pathway [26]
 Quercetin (Q) and Resveratrol (RSV)   HFD-induced obese Rats 15 + 30 mg/kg 6 W perirenal WAT and interscapular BAT UCP-1↑ [27]
 Quercetin Onion peel HFD-fed mice 1 mg/g, 12 W sWAT browning and TG↓ [28]
 Quercetin Onion peel 3 T3-L1 adipocytes 10, 50, and 100 μM AMPK pathway, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation [29]
 Isorhamnetin Metabolite of quercetin 3 T3-L1 adipocyte ob/ob mice 12.5 to 50 μM 10 mg/g, 4 W PPARγ↓ [30]
 Quercetin-rich onion peel extract Onion peel 3 T3-L1 adipocyte 1to 50 μg/ml PPARγ and C/EBPα↓, aP2 and LPL↓ [31]
 Rutin Mulberry Db/Db and HFD-fed mice, C3H10T1/2 cells 1 mg/ml in water, 10 W10 μM Sirt1/PGC-1α/Τfam↑ [19]
 Rutin Mulberry HFD-induced obesity C57BL/6 mice 50 mg/kg, 8 W PGC-1α↑ [32]
Anthocyanins
 Cy-3-G   db/db mice 1 mg/ml in water, 16 W UCP1, Sirt1 and PGC-1α, PPARα [33]
 Cy-3-G Mulberry HFC-fed C57BL/6 J mice, C3H10T1/2 clone8 cells 200 mg/kg, 8 W 100, 200 μg/ml PGC-1α, FGF21, eNAMPT [34]
 Cy-3-G   3 T3-L1 adipocytes 20–100 μM AMPK, cAMP-C/EBPβ↑ [35]
 Mulberry extract Cy-3-G Mulberry C3H10T1/2 MSCs 10 μg/ml p38AMPK–PGC-1α-PRDM16 [36]
Flavan-3-ols
 Flavan-3-ol Cocoa ICR mice 10 mg/kg diet, 2 to 20 h AMPK/ PGC-1α↑ [37]
 Flavan-3-ol fraction Cocoa C57BL/J mice 50 mg/g, 2 W PGC-1α/UCP-1↑MCAD [38]
 Flavan-3-ol fraction Cocoa HFD-fed Wistar rats 2 mg/g diet, 4 W β-oxidation-related enzymes and UCP-1↑ [39]
 Catechins Tea HFD-fed SD rats 5 mg/g diet, 5 W BAT and UCP1↑ [40]
 Theaflavins Black tea ICR mice 10 ml/kg, 2 to 20 h AMPK/PGC-1α↑ [41]
 Oolong,blackandpu-erh Tea ICR mice 2 g/100 ml drink for 7 days AMPK/UCP-1↑, PPARγ and C/EBPα↓ [42]
 Catechins Green tea HFD-fed SD rats, 100 mg/kg/d, 30 Days PPARγ increased in sWAT and decreased in vWAT, PPARδ↑ [43]
 Green tea extract Green tea SD rats 50 mg/kg, 24 h NA-cAMP axis [44]
  (−)-epicatechin Cacao HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice, Human adipocytes 1 mg/g diet, 15days100nM Mitochondrial biogenesis and fat browning [45]
Flavones
 Chrysin Flowers, honeycombs, and mushrooms 3 T3-L1 adipocytes 50 μM AMPK/PGC-1α/UCP-1 [46]
 Luteolin Pepper, celery, thyme, peppermint HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice 0.1 mg/g diet, 12 W AMPK/PGC-1α signaling↑ [20]
 Nobiletin Citrus fruits 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and HIB1B brown adipocytes 100 μM AMPK/PGC-1α and Sirt1 [47]
 Sudachitin Sudachi C57BL/6 and db/db mice 5 mg/kg, 4 and 12 weeks Sirt1–PGC-1α [48]
Flavanones
 G-hesperidin Peel of fruits Wistar rats 60 mg/ml in water BAT-SNA↑, CASNA↓ [49]
 Naringenin   HFD-fed Ldlr(−/−) mice 10,30 mg/g, 4 W PGC-1α/ PPARα [50]
Citrus aurantium flavonoids Hesperidin, Naringenin, and Nobiletin 3 T3-L1 adipocytes 0, 10, or 50 μg/ml Akt/PPARγ and C/EBPα↓ [51]
 Naringenin   Long-Evans hooded rats 0.03 to 0.12 mg/g, 6 W PPARα↑ [52]
Isoflavones
 Isoflavones Soy Male SD rats 0.5 or 4 g/kg, 2 W UCP, PPARα↑ [53]
 Isoflavones Soy food products Long-Evans rats 600 mg/g diet, 33, 55 or 75 days of age BNP Y↑, Thyroid↑, leptin and insulin↓ [54]
 Genistein Soyabeans 3 T3-L1 adipocytes 100 μM C/EBPβ, PGC-1α, Sirt1↑ [55]
 Daidzein Soy isoflavones HFD-fed Rats 50 mg/kg, 2 W PPARγ and SCD1↓ [56]
Flavonolignan
 Silibinin Milk thistle Human ACS 10 μM Sirt1, PPARα, PGC-1α↑ [21]
Proanthocyanidins
 Proanthocyanidins Fruits, berries, beans, nuts, cocoa and wine Wistar rats fed with a cafeteria diet 25 and 50 mg/kg diet, 4 months Sirt1 and PGC-1α↑ [57]
 Proanthocyanidin extracts Chinese bayberry HFD-fed obese SD rat 4, 26, 53%, 4 W Sirt1, BMP4↑, C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ↓ [58]
 Proanthocyanidin   Wistar rats 250 mg/kg PGC-1α↑ [59]
 Flavangenol French martima pine bark HFD-fed Wister rats 3 μg intraduodenal injection, 60 min BAT-SNA↑ [60]
 Procyanidin Cacao liquor HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice 5, 20 mg/g diet, 13 W AMPKα/GLUT4/ PGC-1α↑ [61]
Xanthohumol
 Xanthohumol-rich hop extrac Humulus lupulus L 3 T3-L1 adipocytes 10, 25 μg/ml PPAR-γ, C/EBPα, aP2↓ [62]
 Xanthohumol Humulus lupulus L 3 T3-L1 adipocytes 0 to 100 μM PPAR-γ, C/EBPα, aP2↓, apoptosis↑ [63]
 Matured Hop Bittering Components   HFD-fed C57BL/6 J mice Wistar rats 0 to 2 mg/kg, 9 W 2 or 10 mg/kg, 90 min BAT-SNA, PGC-1α, PRDM16, PPARγ↑ [64]
Plant Extract Mixture
 Black soybean seed coat extract Black soybean Male C57BL/6 mice 0 to2 mg/g diet 14 weeks UCP1↑in BAT and WAT; TNF-α and MCP-1↓. [65]
 Extract of kumquat Citrus fruits HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice 10 mg/kg, 8 weeks, 3 months PPARα↑ [66]
 Puerariae flower extract Kudzu flower HFD-fed C57BL/6 J mice 50 mg/kg, 13.55 mg/kg ISOF, 6 W UCP1↑in BAT [67]
 Olive Leaf Extract Oleuropein Human ASCs 0.27 and 0.37 mg/ml Sirt1, PPARα, PGC-1α↑ [68]
 E. cava polyphenol extract Brown alga Ecklonia cava HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice 100, 500 mg/kg/day 12 W AMPK, PGC-1α, Sirt1↑ [69]