Skip to main content

Table 4 Adjusted associations [odds ratio (95% CI)] between ‘high sugar, high fibre, high energy density and low fat’ DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents aged 13 years recruited from three southern states of Peninsular Malaysia

From: Associations of an empirical dietary pattern with cardiometabolic risk factors in Malaysian adolescents

Cardiometabolic risk factors* Male, n = 173 Female, n = 412 Total, n = 583a
2nd tertile vs 1st tertile 3rd tertile vs 1st tertile 2nd tertile vs 1st tertile 3rd tertile vs 1st tertile 2nd tertile vs 1st tertile 3rd tertile vs 1st tertile
Overweight/Obese, n = 452 1.2 (0.5, 3.1) 0.6 (0.2,1.8) 1.0 (0.5,1.8) 0.9 (0.5,1.6) 1.0 (0.6,1.7) 0.9 (0.5,1.4)
Abdominal Obesity, n = 452 0.9 (0.2,4.3) 0.9 (0.2,4.5) 0.8 (0.3,1.8) 0.5 (0.2,1.2) 0.9 (0.4,1.9) 0.7 (0.3,1.6)
Dyslipidaemia, n = 283 0.9 (0.1,8.8) 3.2 (0.5119.0) 2.1 (0.9,4.6) 2.2 (0.9,5.0) 2.0 (0.9,4.2) 2.7* (1.3,5.6)
Elevated blood glucose (≥5.60 mmol/L), n = 283 0.0 (0.0,0.0) 0.0 (0.0,0.0) 0.0 (0.0,0.0) 0.5 (0.1,4.2) 1.0 (0.25.9) 3.2 (0.7,15.4)
Elevated total cholesterol (≥5.20 mmol/L), n = 283 0.9 (0.1,8.8) 3.2 (0.5119.0) 2.1 (0.9,4.6) 2.2 (0.9,5.0) 2.0 (0.9,4.2) 2.7* (1.3,5.6)
Lower HDL-cholesterol level (≤1.03 mmol/L), n = 283 0.0(0.0,0.0) 1.2 (0.1,19.0) 0.0 (0.0,0.0) 0.5 (0.1,3.0) 0.0 (0.0,0.0) 1.2 (0.3,4.1)
Elevated LDL-cholesterol (≥4.12 mmol/L), n = 283 1.5(0.4,5.2) 3.2 (0.9,11.2) 1.6 (0.8,3.3) 1.5 (0.7,3.1) 1.7 (0.9,3.0) 1.9* (1.0,3.5)
Elevated triglycerides (≥1.70 mmol/L), n = 283 0.0 (0.0,0.0) 0.2 (0.0,31.7) 1.6 (0.1,19.1) 3.7 (0.4,37.1) 0.6 (0.1,3.7) 2.1 (0.4,9.8)
Elevated serum insulin (≥25.0 uIU/mL), n = 283 1.1 (0.0,25.7) 9.8 (0.4222.8) 0.5 (0.1,2.2) 0.6 (0.1,2.5) 0.6 (0.2,2.0) 1.2 (0.4,3.6)
Abnormal HOMA-IR level (≥4.0 unit), n = 283 1.8 (0.3,12.0) 4.6 (0.7,28.6) 1.4 (0.6,3.4) 0.9 (0.3,2.2) 1.7 (0.8,3.6) 1.3 (0.6,3.0)
  1. Model adjusted for school location, mother’s educational level, dietary misreporting, physical activity and BMI (for blood biomarker only) aModel adjusted for sex, school location, mother’s educational level, dietary misreporting, physical activity and BMI (for blood biomarker only). *p < 0.05 is considered significant. HDL-C High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, LDL-C Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, HOMA-IR Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance