Skip to main content

Table 3 Mean of dietary intakes during the study on overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

From: Metabolic and clinical responses to Bunium Persicum (black caraway) supplementation in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

Dietary intakes during the study Bunium Persicum (n = 27)
Mean(95% CI)
Placebo (n = 25)
Mean(95% CI)
P-value$
Energy (kcal) 1982.92(1951.61, 2014.24) 1799.37(1793.42, 1805.33) 0.45
Protein (g) 72.10(71.57, 72.64) 77.85(78.91, 76.79) 0.24
Protein (%)* 14.40(14.54, 14.27) 17.35(17.50, 17.21) 0.76
Carbohydrate (g)* 274.65(268.63, 280.67) 227.01(230.75, 223.27) 0.27
Carbohydrate (%) 54.81(54.49, 55.14) 49.63(50.44, 48.82) 0.25
Fat (g) 69.15(69.02, 69.29) 66.55(65.35, 67.76) 0.55
Fat (%) 30.78(30.96, 30.61) 33.03(31.99, 34.07) 0.17
Cholesterol (mg) 133.4(123.5, 143.3) 130.9(132.3, 129.5) 0.11
Saturated fat (g) 20.29(19.58, 21.01) 16.09(15.88, 16.30) 0.69
Monounsaturated fatty acid (g) 25.31(26.90, 23.72) 24.45(25.02, 23.88) 0.42
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (g) 16.98(16.42, 17.54) 17.84(17.71, 17.97) 0.63
Vitamin A [RAE] (μg) 806.25(884.32, 728.18) 675.98(752.71, 599.26) 0.99
Vitamin C (mg) 136.41(123.35, 149.47) 125.41(118.22, 132.60) 0.59
Potassium 2708.64(2624.96, 2792.33) 2588.11(2540.45, 2635.78) 0.81
Calcium (mg) 823.44(837.12, 809.77) 911.81(934.20, 889.42) 0.88
Iron (mg)* 19.42(19.15, 19.69) 15.25(15.23, 15.28) 0.40
Vitamin D (μg) 0.61(0.49, 0.73) 0.52(0.44, 0.60) 0.81
Vitamin E (mg) 17.54(19.75, 15.34) 16.02(16.61, 15.42) 0.18
Vitamin B1 (mg) 1.89(2.13, 1.66) 1.85(1.88, 1.83) 0.20
Vitamin B2 (mg) 1.82(1.90, 1.74) 1.78(1.86, 1.71) 0.88
Vitamin B3 (mg) 23.81(23.89, 21.74) 25.75(25.60, 25.91) 0.33
Vitamin B6 (mg) 2.48(2.54, 2.42) 2.84(3.27, 2.41) 0.37
Folate (DFE) (μg) 143.69(138.29, 149.09) 144.68(147.47, 141.89) 0.51
Vitamin B12 (μg) 2.41(2.30, 2.52) 2.21(2.39, 2.03) 0.03
Vitamin K (μg) 181.98(129.29, 234.67) 154.90(106.78, 203.03) 0.91
Zinc (mg) 9.54(9.51, 9.58) 8.58(8.39, 8.77) 0.70
Selenium (μg) 33.15(32.25, 34.06) 39.18(38.96, 39.40) 0.82
Total fiber (g) 4.69(4.43, 4.96) 4.15(3.76, 4.55) 0.42
  1. *The dietary intakes at the baseline were higher in the BP group (P <  0.05)
  2. $Two way repeated measures-ANOVA (TWRM-ANOVA)