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Table 4 The changes in BMI, WC, serum nesfatin-1, glucose indices, and lipid profile in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

From: Metabolic and clinical responses to Bunium Persicum (black caraway) supplementation in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

Variables Supplement Baseline
Mean
End
Mean
P-value$ Mean Changes
(95% CI)
P-value#
Time Treatment Interaction
BMI Caraway
(n = 27)
28.77(3.77) 28.32(4.06) <  0.01 −0.45
(0.16, 0.72)
0.43 0.48 0.02
Placebo
(n = 25)
29.19(3.27) 29.42(3.28) 0.38 0.23
(−.80, 0.30)
0.83 0.54 0.04
WC (cm) Caraway (n = 27) 100.32(7.06) 99.04(7.41) <  0.01 −1.28
(0.49, 2.06)
0.01 0.79 0.04
Placebo
(n = 25)
100.35(8.45) 100.21(8.29) 0.73 −0.13
(−0.67, 0.94)
0.22 0.60 0.12
FBG (mg/dl) Caraway (n = 27) 175.38(69.89) 142.65(53.84) < 0.01 −32.73
(13.67, 51.79)
0.04 0.32 < 0.01
Placebo
(n = 25)
174.04(52.30) 178.95(73.49) 0.57 4.90
(−22.70, 12.90)
0.16 0.82 0.02
FBI (μIU/ml) Caraway (n = 27) 9.39(6.77) 5.59(2.50) 0.03 −3.79
(0.33, 7.25)
0.24 0.01 0.15
Placebo
(n = 25)
11.63(7.51) 12.03(8.98) 0.87 0.40
(−5.35, 4.55)
0.14 0.01 0.05
HOMA-IR Caraway (n = 27) 4.21(3.72) 2.27(1.32) 0.04 −1.94
(0.91, 3.78)
0.18 0.01 0.04
Placebo
(n = 25)
4.98(3.11) 5.16(4.68) 0.87 0.18
(−2.48, 2.12)
0.17 0.03 0.02
QUICKI Caraway (n = 27) 0.45(0.01) 0.47(0.03) 0.01 0.02
(−.03, 0.0)
0.01 0.13 0.03
Placebo
(n = 25)
0.44(0.01) 0.45(0.03) 0.76 0.01
(−.04, 0.1)
0.05 0.43 0.05
TC (mg/dl) Caraway (n = 27) 159.04(36.78) 159.50(37.06) 0.94 0.46
(−13.34, 12.42)
0.45 0.79 0.51
Placebo
(n = 25)
152.62(48.96) 159.95(45.22) 0.4 7.33
(−24.92, 10.26)
0.88 0.57 0.93
TG (mg/dl) Caraway (n = 27) 163.34(117.15) 175.27(121.37) 0.39 −11.92
(−39.92, 16.08)
0.14 0.94 0.86
Placebo
(n = 25)
164.23(82.37) 179.29(100.35) 0.19 15.04
(−38.13, 8.03)
0.26 0.92 0.82
LDL-C (mg/dl) Caraway (n = 27) 81.34(27.61) 82.57(27.67) 0.84 1.22
(−13.74, 11.29)
0.64 0.86 0.46
Placebo
(n = 25)
83.27(29.58) 77.78(39.33) 0.42 −5.49
(−8.50, 19.49)
0.94 0.48 0.12
HDL-C (mg/dl) Caraway (n = 27) 44.96(11.99) 44.19(11.22) 0.52 −0.77
(−1.66, 3.20)
0.89 0.70 0.35
Placebo
(n = 25)
42.95(7.65) 44.00(9.22) 0.52 1.04
(−4.36, 2.27)
0.67 0.84 0.33
Nesfatin-1 (ng/ml) Caraway (n = 27) 4.37(1.65) 6.14(3.38) 0.02 1.77
(−3.24, 0.29)
0.01 0.26 0.59
Placebo
(n = 25)
5.46(2.14) 6.64(3.86) 0.17 1.18
(−2.90, 0.54)
0.23 0.67 0.79
  1. $Paired t-test; #Two way repeated measures-ANOVA (TWRM-ANOVA), top row P-value: unadjusted; bottom row P-value: adjusted for vitamins B12 dietary intake
  2. BMI: body mass index, WC: waist circumference, HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, QUICKI: quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, FBG: fasting blood glucose, FBI: fasting blood insulin, TC: total cholesterol, TG: triglyceride, HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol