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Table 1 Characteristics of the GDM and NGT groups in both the second and third trimesters

From: Nerve growth factor is closely related to glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the second trimester: a case–control study in Chinese

Characteristics Participants in the second trimester Participants in the third trimester
GDM
(n = 200)
NGT
(n = 200)
P GDM
(n = 130)
NGT
(n = 130)
P
Age (years) 32 (29, 35) 32 (29, 35) 0.906 31 (29, 34) 31 (29, 33) 0.897
SBP (mmhg) 109.83 ± 10.14 106 (101, 113) 0.005    
DBP (mmhg) 67.44 ± .80 65 (61, 71) 0.022    
Pregestational BMI (kg/m2) 21.32 ± 2.59 21.26 ± 2.52 0.343 21.19 ± 2.29 21.06 ± 2.15 0.695
 Normal weight, n (%) 171 (85.5) 173 (86.5)   112 (86.15) 118(90.77)  
 Overweight, n (%) 24 (12) 23 (11.5) 0.93 18 (13.85) 12 (9.23) 0.24
 Obesity, n (%) 5 (2.5) 4 (2)   0 0  
Changes of BMI (kg/m2) 2.69 ± 1.23 2.70 ± 1.23 0.792 5.15 ± 1.66 5.78 ± 1.35 0.001
Previous history of GDM, n (%) 19 (9.5) 1 (0.5) < 0.001 12 (9.23) 3 (2.31) 0.017
Family history of diabetes, n (%) 48 (24) 5 (2.5) < 0.001 37 (18.5) 23 (11.5) 0.039
Gestational age (weeks) 26 (25, 27) 25 (25, 26) 0.498 37 (36, 37) 36 (36, 37) 0.024
HbA1c (%) 5.20 (5.00, 5.40) 5.10 (5.00, 5.30) 0.003 5.40 (5.20, 5.60) 5.20 (5.00, 5.40) < 0.001
FBG (mmol/L) 4.64 ± 0.53 4.36 ± 0.28 < 0.001 4.70 ± 0.54 4.37 ± 0.28 < 0.001
1h-PG (mmol/L) 9.88 ± 1.32 7.45 ± 1.24 < 0.001 9.71 ± 1.61 7.16 ± 1.43 < 0.001
2h-PG (mmol/L) 9.07 ± 1.24 6.66 ± 0.98 < 0.001 8.55 ± 1.42 6.34 ± 1.01 < 0.001
AUCG (mmol/L h) 16.74 ± 1.72 12.97 ± 1.56 < 0.001 16.33 ± 2.07 12.52 ± 1.77 < 0.001
Fasting insulin (mU/L) 6.79 (4.75, 10.78) 5.37 (3.73, 7.77) 0.001    
HOMA-IR 1.38 (0.95,2.21) 1.05 (0.71,1.53) < 0.001    
HOMA-β 134.07 (88.68,206.35) 123.20 (81.80,215.58) 0.522    
  1. Data are presented as the means ± SDs or median (interquartile range)
  2. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, FBG fasting blood glucose, 1h-PG 1-h postprandial glucose, 2h-PG 2-h postprandial glucose, AUCG area under curve of glucose from the 75-g OGTT, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-β homeostasis model assessment index of β-cell secretion