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Table 1 General characteristics of study participants by breakfast consumption

From: Association between breakfast skipping and metabolic outcomes by sex, age, and work status stratification

Characteristics Regular breakfast, n (%) p-value
Yes No
Total 11,952 (56.4) 9241 (43.6)  
Sex   0.1100
 Men 5031 (42.1) 3991 (43.2)  
 Women 6921 (57.9) 5250 (56.8)  
Age   <.0001
 20–39 2775 (23.2) 4544 (49.2)  
 40–59 9177 (76.8) 4697 (50.8)  
Education   <.0001
 Middle school 3671 (30.7) 1707 (18.5)  
 High school 3878 (32.5) 3435 (37.2)  
 College or more 4403 (36.8) 4099 (44.4)  
Household income   <.0001
 1st Quartile 942 (7.9) 821 (8.9)  
 2nd Quartile 2707 (22.7) 2278 (24.6)  
 3rd Quartile 3785 (31.7) 3086 (33.4)  
 4th Quartile 4518 (37.8) 3056 (33.1)  
Smoking   <.0001
 None 8636 (72.3) 5856 (63.4)  
 Past 1754 (14.7) 1304 (14.1)  
 Current 1562 (13.1) 2081 (22.5)  
Drinking   <.0001
 None 4122 (34.6) 2105 (22.8)  
 Moderate 6743 (56.5) 5829 (63.1)  
 Severe 1062 (8.9) 1300 (14.1)  
Physical activity    0.0008
 No or unknown 7304 (61.1) 5438 (58.9)  
 Yes 4648 (38.9) 3803 (41.2)  
Working   <.0001
No 7042 (58.9) 4754 (51.4)  
Yes 4910 (41.1) 4487 (48.6)  
Abdominal obesity   0.4420
 No 9601 (80.3) 7384 (79.9)  
 Yes 2351 (19.7) 1857 (20.1)  
Raised blood pressure   <.0001
 No 8954 (74.9) 7305 (79.1)  
 Yes 2998 (25.1) 1936 (20.9)  
Raised fasting glucose   <.0001
 No 8932 (74.7) 7128 (77.1)  
 Yes 3020 (25.3) 2113 (22.9)  
Increased TG   0.0195
 No 8674 (72.6) 6839 (74.1)  
 Yes 3278 (27.4) 2402 (26.9)  
Decreased HDL-C   <.0001
 No 7877 (65.9) 6428 (69.6)  
 Yes 4075 (34.1) 2813 (30.4)  
Metabolic syndrome   <.0001
 No 9523 (79.7) 7617 (82.4)  
 Yes 2429 (20.3) 1624 (17.6)  
  1. Abdominal obesity: WC > 90 cm for male, WC > 80 cm for female (Asian modified)
  2. Raised blood pressure: Systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg, Diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHg, or pharmacologic treatment for hypertension
  3. Raised fasting plasma glucose: Plasma fasting glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL or pharmacologic treatment for diabetes
  4. Increased triglyceride(TG): Plasma triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL or pharmacologic treatment for dyslipidemia
  5. Decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C): Plasma HDL-C < 40 mg/dL for male, Plasma-HDL-C < 50 mg/dL for female or pharmacologic treatment for dyslipidemia
  6. Metabolic syndrome: Three or more of the above traits (NCEP-ATP III Criteria)