Skip to main content

Table 1 Associations between milk consumption and cancer outcomes

From: Milk consumption and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in humans

Outcomes First author Year Types of milk No. of studies in MA Type of studies in MA No. of cases/total Effects mode Metric of MA Effect size 95% CI I2% Publication bias
Significant associations
Most beneficial
Colon cancer Barrubes 2019 Low-fat milk 2 Cohort 3339/15,441 Fixed RR 0.73 0.61–0.87 0 NA
Distal colon cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 3 Cohort 40,651/15,657 Fixed RR 0.75 0.63–0.90 25 NA
CRC Barrubes 2019 Low-fat milk 2 Cohort 3507/484,338 Fixed RR 0.76 0.66–0.88 42 NA
Colon cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 8 Cohort 3339/15,441 Random RR 0.79 0.72–0.87 0 NA
Proximal colon cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 3 Cohort 40,651/15,657 Fixed RR 0.81 0.68–0.96 0 NA
CRC Barrubes 2019 Milk 9 Cohort 9118/1,003,303 Random RR 0.82 0.76–0.88 2 NA
Rectal cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 5 Cohort NA Random RR 0.84 0.73–0.97 0 NA
Colon cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 3 Cohort 3339/15,441 Fixed RRa 0.88 0.84–0.93 0 NA
Bladder Cancer Bermejo 2019 Milk 14 Cohort/case control NA/438,319 Random RR 0.89 0.81–0.98 66.4 0.269
CRC Barrubes 2019 Milk 9 Cohort 9118/1,003,303 Random RRb 0.90 0.86–0.93 0 NA
Rectal cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 3 Cohort NA Fixed RRc 0.91 0.84–0.97 25 NA
Prostate cancer Aune 2015 Milk 8 Cohort 19,664/448,719 Random RR 0.92 0.85–0.99 0 No
Breast cancer Wu 2016 Skim milk 8 Cohort 16,664/586,726 Random RR 0.93 0.85–1.00 40.1 0.616
Breast cancer Wu 2016 Skim milk 5 Cohort NA Random RR 0.96 0.92–1.00 11.9 0.498
Most harmful
DLBCL Wang 2016 Milk 3 Case–control 352/NA Random RR 1.49 1.08–2.06 8.9 NA
Gastric cancr Wang 2018 Milk 21 Cohort/case control NA Random RR 1.44 1.15–1.81 82.7 NA
NHL Wang 2016 Milk 14 Cohort/case control 7109/NA Random RR 1.41 1.08–1.84 88.6 no
Ovarian cancer Liu 2015 Milk 11 Cohort NA Random OR 1.23 1.03–1.46  > 50 0.957
Bladder Cancer Bermejo 2019 Milk 3 Cohort/case control NA/3933 Random RR 1.21 1.04–1.38 86.1 NA
Prostate cancer Aune 2015 Low-fat milk 6 Cohort 19,430/432,943 Random RRd 1.14 1.05–1.25 51 NA
NHL Wang 2016 Milk 9 Cohort/case control 3739/NA Random RRe 1.13 1.00–1.28 NA NA
NHL Wang 2016 Milk 9 Cohort/case control 3739/NA Random RRf 1.12 1.00–1.26 NA NA
Prostate cancer Aune 2015 Milk 14 Cohort 11,392/566,146 Random RR 1.11 1.03–1.21 21 no
Prostate cancer Aune 2015 Low-fat milk 5 Cohort NA/374,664 Random RRg 1.06 1.01–1.11 67 NA
Prostate cancer Aune 2015 Milk 13 Cohort NA/559,383 Random RRg 1.03 1.00–1.06 9 NA
Non-significant associations
Distal colon cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 2 Cohort 40,651/15,657 Fixed RR 0.78 0.60–1.01 0 NA
Breast cancer Chen 2019 Low-fat milk 3 Case–control NA Random OR 0.85 0.70–1.04  < 50 0.583
Colon cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 2 Cohort 3339/15,441 Fixed RR 0.87 0.72–1.05 0 NA
Pancreatic cancer Genkinger 2014 Low-fat milk 14 Cohort 307/NA Random HR 0.87 0.75–1.01 5 NA
Breast cancer Wu 2016 Milk 18 Cohort 19,747/775,778 Random RR 0.92 0.84–1.02 53.5 0.292
Pancreatic cancer Genkinger 2014 Milk 14 Cohort 373/NA Random HR 0.92 0.77–1.10 0 NA
Ovarian cancer Liu 2015 Low-fat/skim milk 13 Cohort NA Random OR 0.93 0.79–1.09  < 50 0.370
ESCC Li 2016 Milk 11 Case–control 2311/NA Random RR 0.93 0.74–1.16 52.9 0.960
Rectal cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 2 Cohort NA Fixed RR 0.94 0.76–1.16 0 NA
Breast cancer Chen 2019 Milk 8 Case–control NA Random OR 0.95 0.80–1.13  < 50 0.272
CRC Barrubes 2019 Milk 3 Cohort 5198/545,046 Fixed RR 0.97 0.86–1.09 40 NA
Breast cancer Wu 2016 Milk 11 Cohort NA Random RRg 0.97 0.93–1.01 36.4 0.355
ESCC Li 2016 Milk 6 Case–control NA Random RRb 0.97 0.70–1.35 58.9 NA
Lung cancer Yang 2016 Low-fat milk 3 Cohort/case control NA Random RR 0.98 0.69–1.41 0 0.120
Prostate cancer Aune 2015 Milk 6 Cohort NA/388,664 Random RRg 0.98 0.95–1.01 0 NA
NHL Sergentanis 2019 Milk 4 Cohort 1517/NA Random RR 0.99 0.85–1.15 0 0.461
Breast cancer Wu 2016 Milk 9 Cohort 13,781/554,775 Random RR 0.99 0.87–1.12 37.4 0.723
Endometrial cancer Li 2017 Milk 6 Cohort/case control 3538/331,168 Random OR 0.99 0.89–1.10 0 NA
FL Wang 2016 Milk 3 Case–control 390/NA Random RR 0.99 0.47–2.07 89.8 NA
Pancreatic cancer Genkinger 2014 Milk 14 Cohort 145/NA Random HR 1.01 0.83–1.22 0 NA
Breast cancer Wu 2016 Milk 5 Cohort NA Random RRg 1.02 0.92–1.13 32.8 0.660
NHL Wang 2016 Milk 9 Cohort/case control 3739/NA Random RRh 1.04 0.97–1.12 NA NA
SLL/CLL Wang 2016 Milk 3 Case–control 477/NA Random RR 1.04 0.69–1.55 44.1 NA
NHL Wang 2016 Milk 9 Cohort/case control 3739/NA Random RRi 1.07 0.96–1.19 NA NA
Lung cancer Yang 2016 Milk 22 Cohort/case control NA Random RR 1.08 0.80–1.46 90.5 0.300
NHL Wang 2016 Milk 9 Cohort/case control 3739/NA Random RRj 1.11 0.99–1.24 NA NA
HCC Yang 2017 Milk 7 Cohort/case control NA Random RR 1.13 0.67–1.88 78 > 0.1
Proximal colon cancer Barrubes 2019 Milk 2 Cohort 40,651/15,657 Fixed RR 1.20 0.96–1.49 83 NA
  1. MA meta-analysis, CI confidence interval, RR risk ratio, HR hazard ratio, OR odds ratio, NHL non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, CRC colorectal cancer, DLBCL diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, FL follicular lymphoma, SLL/CLL small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia, ESCC esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, NA not available
  2. a488 g/day; b244 g/day; c732 g/day; dhighest verse lowest; e200 g/day; f440 g/day; g490 g/day; h120 g/day; i210 g/day; j370 g/day