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Table 2 Association between milk consumption and mortality and cardiovascular disease

From: Milk consumption and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in humans

Outcomes First author Year Types No. of studies in MA Type of studies in MA No. of cases/total Effects mode Metric of MA Effect size 95% CI I2% Publication bias
Mortality
Significant associations
CHD mortality Mazidi 2018 Milk 3 Cohort 18,927/105,528 Random RR 1.04 1.02–1.06 10.4 NA
PC mortality Lu 2016 Milk NA Cohort NA Random RR 1.50 1.03–2.17 NA NA
PC mortality Lu 2016 Milk NA Cohort NA Random RRa 1.43 1.13–1.81 NA NA
Non-significant associations             
CVD mortality O'Sullivan 2013 Milk 7 Cohort 17,455/338,421 Random RR 0.96 0.81–1.13 22.8 NA
All-cancer mortality Lu 2016 Milk NA Cohort NA Random RR 0.97 0.92–1.03 8.4 0.95
All-cause mortality Mazidi 2018 Milk 3 Cohort 23,324/63,390 Random RR 0.99 0.98–1.00 8.3 NA
PC mortality Lu 2016 Skim/low-fat milk NA Cohort NA Random RR 1.00 0.75–1.33 NA NA
Total mortality Mullie 2016 Milk 11 Cohort 63,545/281,788 Random RRa 1.01 0.96–1.06 94 0.64
Cardiovascular outcomes
Significant associations
Stroke de Goede 2016 Milk 14 Cohort 25,269/603,920 Random RRb 0.93 0.88–0.98 86 0.06
CVD Soedamah-M 2011 Milk 4 Cohort 2283/13,518 Random RRb 0.94 0.89–0.99 0 NA
Hypertension Soedamah-M 2012 Milk 7 Cohort 14,398/47,647 Random RRb 0.96 0.94–0.98 NA NA
Stroke de Goede 2016 High-fat milk 4 Cohort 5942/159,547 Random RRb 1.04 1.02–1.06 0 NA
Non-significant associations
Arterial Stiffness Diez-F 2019 Milk 4 Cross-sectional NA/15,553 Random NA 0.02 -0.01–0.05 0 NA
Stroke Gholami 2017 Milk 10 Cohort 22,946/440,397 Random RR 0.91 0.81–1.01 71.4 0.45
Stroke de Goede 2016 Low-fat milk 4 Cohort 5942/159,547 Random RRb 0.96 0.90–1.03 68.2 NA
CVD Guo 2017 Milk 9 Cohort/case control 21,580/249,779 Random RR 1.01 0.93–1.10 92.4 No
CHD Gholami 2017 Milk 9 Cohort 4866/212,767 Random RR 1.05 0.96–1.15 0 0.6
  1. MA meta-analysis, No. number, CI confidence interval, RR risk ratio, CHD coronary heart disease, PC prostate cancer, CVD cardiovascular disease, NA not available
  2. a244 g/day; b200 g/day