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Table 1 Distribution of 82 gastric cancer cases and 95 controls according to selected variablesa, b [8, 38]

From: Validation of Dietary Antioxidant Index (DAI) and investigating the relationship between DAI and the odds of gastric cancer

Characteristics Mean ± SD or N (%) p value
Controls (n = 95) Cases (n = 82)
Age (years) 48.33 ± 10.74 51.36 ± 11.81 0.07
Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2) 24.96 ± 2.71 26.36 ± 5.12 0.02
Dietary antioxidant Index (DAI) 0.17 ± 1.18 − 0.21 ± 0.68 < 0.01
TAC (mmol/l) 1.91 ± 1.27 1.16 ± 1.26 < 0.01
MDA (μmol/l) 3.01 ± 1.68 3.72 ± 2.19 < 0.01
Sex    0.98
 Females 52 (54.74) 45 (54.88)  
 Males 43 (45.26) 37 (45.12)  
Education    0.24
 Diploma or less 67 (70.53) 51 (62.20)  
 Higher than diploma 28 (29.47) 31 (37.80)  
Smoking    0.82
 Never smoker 80 (84.21) 68 (82.93)  
 Ever smoker 15 (15.79) 14 (17.07)  
Alcohol    0.41
 Non drinker 86 (90.53) 71 (86.59)  
 Drinker 9 (9.47) 11 (13.41)  
H. pylori infection     < 0.01
 Negative 46 (48.42) 21 (25.61)  
 Positive 49 (51.57) 61 (74.39)  
Regular physical activity    0.03
 Yes 30 (31.58) 14 (17.07)  
 No 65 (68.42) 68 (82.93)  
Aspirin/NSAID use    0.83
 No 86 (90.53) 75 (91.46)  
 Yes 9 (9.47) 7 (8.54)  
Cancer history    0.41
 Yes 11 (11.58) 13 (15.85)  
 No 84 (88.42) 69 (84.15)  
  1. TAC total antioxidant capacity, mmol/l millimoles per liter, MDA malondialdehyde, μmol/l micromoles per liter
  2. aComparison of mean of case and control groups in case of a normal distribution of variables by the t-test and abnormal distribution of variables by the Mann–Whitney test
  3. bChi-square was used for categorical variables