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Table 5 The urinary biomarkers of participants

From: The comparison of water intake patterns and hydration biomarkers among young adults with different hydration statuses in Hebei, China

  OH (n = 58) MH (n = 72) HH (n = 26)
  Male (n = 19) Female (n = 39) Total (n = 58) Male (n = 44) Female (n = 28) Total (n = 72) Male (n = 17) Female (n = 9) Total (n = 26)
Volume 1664 (522)* 1740 (732)* 1727 (720)* 1268 (371) 1082 (326) 1176 (345) 853 (188) 712 (301) 777 (265)
Osmolality (mOsm/kg) 430 (86)* 382 (146)* 406 (120)* 685 (141) 616 (158) 662 (156) 879 (132) 872 (84) 875 (94)
USG (urine specific gravity) 1.013 (0.003)* 1.012 (0.003)* 1.012 (0.002)* 1.017 (0.003) 1.015 (0.002) 1.015 (0.003) 1.022 (0.006) 1.018 (0.002) 1.021 (0.005)
pH 6.7 (0.3) 6.8 (0.5) 6.7 (0.5) 6.7 (0.3) 6.8 (0.4) 6.7 (0.3) 6.7 (0.4) 6.8 (0.2) 6.7 (0.3)
Na (mmol/L) 147 (78)* 118 (59)* 124 (55)* 227 (81) 169 (66) 201 (95) 226 (162) 234 (102) 229 (130)
K (mmol/L) 24.1 (14.8)* 23.9 (10.3)* 24.0 (10.6)* 39.8 (11.8) 34.3 (16.6) 37.8 (14.7) 51.0 (20.5) 48.8 (11.4) 48.9 (16.9)
Cl (mmol/L) 141 (75)* 119 (50)* 121 (51)* 228 (82) 163 (70) 200 (92) 227 (164) 220 (92) 226 (136)
Ca (mmol/L) 1.54 (1.02)* 1.47 (1.06)* 1.48 (0.93)* 2.43 (1.44) 2.21 (1.19) 2.35 (1.21) 4.70 (2.83) 3.39 (1.94) 3.73 (2.21)
Mg (mmol/L) 1.77 (1.08)* 1.76 (0.84)* 1.77 (0.91)* 2.73 (1.17) 2.83 (1.02) 2.75 (1.07) 3.37 (1.29) 3.63 (0.66) 3.52 (0.94)
Phosphate (mmol/L) 11.10 (3.46)* 9.63 (4.43)* 10.36 (4.79)* 17.56 (6.94) 14.83 (3.74) 16.63 (6.09) 26.47 (4.40) 20.46 (9.07) 25.41 (7.43)
Creatinine (mmol/L) 7.78 (2.97)* 5.38 (2.29)* 5.95 (2.77)* 11.15 (4.17) 8.88 (2.31) 10.04 (3.60) 15.01 (4.48) 11.62 (3.79) 13.79 (4.90)
Uric acid (mmol/L) 1.63 (0.60)* 1.55 (0.72)* 1.59 (0.66)* 2.80 (0.83) 2.50 (0.69) 2.71 (0.80) 3.70 (1.33) 3.72 (1.07) 3.71 (1.25)
Urea (mmol/L) 161 (69)* 131 (52)* 145 (52)* 258 (86) 193 (81) 231 (92) 337 (82) 287 (52) 327 (76)
  1. Values are shown as the median (M) and quartile ranges (Q)
  2. *There was statistically significant difference between OH and MH groups, P < 0.05
  3. There was statistically significant difference between MH and HH groups, P < 0.05
  4. There was statistically significant difference between OH and HH groups, P < 0.05. The Kruskal–Wallis H test was used to compare the differences among the three groups, including males and females. When comparing the differences between males and females within the group, Mann–Whitney U test was used. There were significant differences in the volume of urine, the osmolality, USG, the concentrations of K, Na, Cl, Ca, phosphate, Mg, creatinine, uric acid and urea (χ2 = 82.291 P < 0.001; χ2 = 131.084, P < 0.001; χ2 = 95.724, P < 0.001; χ2 = 68.277, P < 0.001; χ2 = 62.711, P < 0.001; χ2 = 62.380, P < 0.001; χ2 = 50.843, P < 0.001; χ2 = 90.238, P < 0.001; χ2 = 78.059, P < 0.001; χ2 = 91.976, P < 0.001; χ2 = 98.747, P < 0.001; χ2 = 87.635, P < 0.001). In males, significant differences were found in the volume of urine, the osmolality, USG, the concentrations of K, Na, Cl, Ca, phosphate, Mg, creatinine, uric acid and urea among the three groups (χ2 = 41.540, P < 0.001; χ2 = 64.050, P < 0.001; χ2 = 37.506, P < 0.001; χ2 = 29.684, P < 0.001; χ2 = 24.007, P < 0.001; χ2 = 29.684, P < 0.001; χ2 = 24.892, P < 0.001; χ2 = 23.769, P < 0.001; χ2 = 38.099, P < 0.001; χ2 = 25.223, P < 0.001; χ2 = 38.379, P < 0.001; χ2 = 37.589, P < 0.001; χ2 = 28.930, P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in pH among the three groups (F = 2.770, P = 0.069). In females, there were also significant differences in the volumes of urine, osmolality, USG, the concentrations of Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, Mg, urea, uric acid and creatinine among the three groups (χ2 = 45.047, P < 0.001; χ2 = 61.002, P < 0.001; χ2 = 49.910, P < 0.001; χ2 = 30.956, P < 0.001; χ2 = 31.411, P < 0.001; χ2 = 29.374, P < 0.001; χ2 = 20.829, P < 0.001; χ2 = 44.734, P < 0.001; χ2 = 47.734, P < 0.001; χ2 = 46.329, P < 0.001; χ2 = 51.745, P < 0.001; χ2 = 52.709, P < 0.001). In OH group, the concentrations of Na, Cl, phosphate, urea and creatinine of urine were different between males and females (Z = − 2.245, P = 0.025; Z = − 2.079, P = 0.038; Z = − 2.079, P = 0.038; Z = − 2.725, P = 0.006; Z = − 4.018, P < 0.001). In the MH groups, differences were found in the volumes, the concentrations of Na, Cl, P, urea, USG and creatinine between males and females (Z = − 3.038, P = 0.002; Z = − 3.494, P < 0.001; Z = − 3.465, P < 0.001; Z = − 2.645, P = 0.008; Z = − 3.281, P = 0.001; Z = − 2.282, P = 0.022; Z = − 3.823, P < 0.001). In HH group, there were significant differences in the concentrations of urea between males and females (Z = − 2.398, P = 0.016)