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Table 3 Individuals with micronutrient intakes below dietary reference values

From: Association between added sugar intake and micronutrient dilution: a cross-sectional study in two adult Swedish populations

Riksmaten AdultsMalmö Diet and Cancer Study
 Added Sugar Intake (%E)  Added Sugar Intake (%E) 
 DRVsa<  5%5–7.5%7.5–10%10–15%15–20%>  20%p-trendsbDRVs(1)<  5%5–7.5%7.5–10%10–15%15–20%> 20%p-trendsb
Average Requirements (ARs)c
 Males
  Calcium500 mg/day22 (16.8%)17 (9.9%)14 (8.4%)17 (7.4%)7 (9.0%)4 (28.6%)0.083500 mg/day20 (3.8%)16 (1.6%)15 (1.0%)23 (1.3%)12 (2.4%)10 (6.6%)0.896
  Folate200 μg/day41 (31.3%)46 (26.7%)28 (16.9%)42 (18.2%)21 (26.9%)7 (50.0%)0.112200 μg/day103 (19.6%)204 (19.8%)229 (15.9%)335 (18.5%)105 (20.8%)48 (31.8%)0.179
  Iron7 mg/day19 (14.5%)12 (7.0%)10 (6.0%)10 (4.3%)10 (12.8%)3 (21.4%)0.2327 mg/day2 (0.4%)2 (0.2%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.1%)2 (0.4%)0 (0.0%)0.536
  Selenium35 μg/day37 (28.2%)37 (21.5%)31 (18.7%)60 (26.0%)22 (28.2%)9 (64.3%)0.23835 μg/day125 (23.8%)276 (26.8%)405 (28.1%)578 (31.9%)196 (38.7%)95 (62.9%)<  0.001
  Vitamin C60 mg/day59 (45.0%)52 (30.2%)53 (31.9%)65 (28.1%)25 (32.1%)7 (50.0%)0.05060 mg/day160 (30.5%)323 (31.4%)383 (26.5%)458 (5.2%)107 (21.1%)38 (25.2%)<  0.001
  Vitamin D7.5 μg/day88 (67.2%)106 (61.6%)101 (60.8%)140 (60.6%)53 (67.9%)11 (78.6%)0.9427.5 μg/day152 (29.0%)287 (27.9%)360 (24.9%)488 (26.9%)193 (38.1%)81 (53.6%)<  0.001
  Zinc6 mg/day8 (6.1%)1 (0.6%)4 (2.4%)4 (1.7%)1 (1.3%)2 (14.3%)0.3166 mg/day2 (0.4%)1(0.1%)1 (0.1%)5 (0.3%)4 (0.8%)4 (2.6%)0.003
 Females
  Calcium500 mg/day25 (17.6%)27 (12.2%)24 (10.9%)27 (9.3%)13 (13.4%)6 (17.1%)0.195500 mg/day12 (2.2%)20 (1.6%)20 (1.1%)36 (1.5%)10 (1.7%)9 (5.6%)0.369
  Folate200 μg/day47 (33.1%)54 (24.4%)53 (24.1%)89 (30.7%)41 (42.3%)16 (45.7%)0.019200 μg/day124 (23.1%)315 (25.0%)466 (26.3%)718 (29.5%)212 (35.3%)82 (50.9%)<  0.001
  Iron10 mg/day(4)103 (72.5%)132 (59.7%)134 (60.9%)177 (61.0%)65 (67.0%)23 (65.7%)0.4756 mg/daye2 (0.4%)1 (0.1%)0 (0.0%)2 (0.1%)0 (0.0%)4 (2.5%)0.179
  Selenium30 μg/day26 (18.3%)46 (20.8%)53 (24.1%)71 (24.5%)28 (28.9%)15 (42.9%)0.00530 μg/day113 (21.1%)347 (27.5%)469 (26.4%)816 (33.5%)263 (43.8%)89 (55.3%)<  0.001
  Vitamin C50 mg/day34 (23.9%)38 (17.2%)39 (17.7%)53 (18.3%)19 (19.6%)12 (34.3%)0.90850 mg/day40 (7.5%)109 (8.6%)197 (11.1%)238 (9.8%)75 (12.5%)23 (14.3%)0.007
  Vitamin D7.5 μg/day90 (63.4%)149 (67.4%)150 (68.2%)209 (72.1%)77 (79.4%)30 (85.7%)0.0017.5 μg/day259 (48.3%)643 (51.0%)926 (52.2%)1369 (56.2%)374 (62.2%)114 (70.8%)<  0.001
  Zinc5 mg/day8 (5.6%)4 (1.8%)5 (2.3%)10 (3.4%)6 (6.2%)4 (11.4%)0.2125 mg/day1 (0.2%)0 (0.0%)1 (0.1%)5 (0.2%)0 (0.0%)3 (1.9%)0.027
Recommended Intake (RI)
 Males
  Calcium800 mg/day64 (48.9%)65 (37.8%)63 (38.0%)78 (33.8%)25 (32.1%)8 (57.1%)0.021800 mg/day102(19.4%)162 (15.7%)200 (13.9%)235 (13.0%)78 (15.4%)45 (29.8%)0.301
  Folate300 μg/day89 (67.9%)120 (69.8%)112 (67.5%)155 (67.1%)64 (82.1%)13 (92.9%)0.144300 μg/day361 (68.8%)697 (67.7%)975 (67.6%)1269 (70.0%)373 (73.7%)134 (88.7%)<  0.001
  Iron9 mg/day49 (37.4%)49 (28.5%)33 (19.9%)49 (21.2%)29 (37.2%)10 (71.4%)0.4299 mg/day4 (0.8%)10 (1.0%)9 (0.6%)6 (0.3%)6 (1.2%)4 (2.6%)0.942
  Magnesium350 mg/day75 (57.3%)85 (49.4%)70 (42.2%)97 (42.0%)35 (44.9%)11 (78.6%)0.050350 mg/day180 (34.3%)300 (29.1%)423 (29.3%)542 (29.9%)165 (32.6%)70 (46.4%)0.266
  Potassium3500 mg/day89 (67.9%)98 (57.0%)85 (51.2%)117 (50.6%)45 (57.7%)14 (100%)0.1173500 mg/day199 (37.9%)400 (38.8%)551 (38.2%)756 (41.7%)232 (45.8%)91 (60.3%)<  0.001
  Selenium60 μg/day94 (71.8%)123 (71.5%)123 (74.1%)179 (77.5%)62 (79.5%)11 (78.6%)0.06860 μg/day431 (82.1%)861 (83.6%)1264 (87.6%)1650 (91.0%)472 (93.3%)144 (95.4%)<  0.001
  Vitamin C75 mg/day71 (54.2%)73 (42.4%)74 (44.6%)98 (42.4%)38 (48.7%)8 (57.1%)0.39675 mg/day225 (42.9%)481 (46.7%)580 (40.2%)718 (39.6%)158 (31.2%)49 (32.5%)<  0.001
  Vitamin D10 μg/dayf97 (74.0%)127 (73.8%)136 (81.9%)173 (74.9%)63 (80.8%)12 (85.7%)0.30210 μg/dayf323 (61.5%)639 (62.0%)885 (61.3%)1170 (64.5%)363 (71.7%)127 (84.1%)<  0.001
  Zinc9 mg/day28 (21.4%)23 (13.4%)24 (14.5%)34 (14.7%)13 (16.7%)5 (35.7%)0.7299 mg/day41 (7.8%)67 (6.5%)79 (5.5%)112 (6.2%)42 (8.3%)36 (23.8%)0.010
 Females
  Calcium800 mg/day88 (62.0%)103 (46.6%)109 (49.5%)145 (50.0%)47 (48.5%)17 (48.6%)0.160800 mg/day101 (18.8%)230 (18.2%)304 (17.1%)439 (18.0%)123 (20.5%)44 (27.3%)0.161
  Folate300 μg/dayg109 (76.8%)159 (71.9%)166 (75.5%)228 (78.6%)83 (85.6%)30 (85.7%)0.016300 μg/dayg385 (71.8%)977 (77.5%)1424 (80.2%)2014 (82.7%)519 (86.4%)145 (90.1%)<  0.001
  Iron15 mg/dayd139 (97.9%)209 (94.6%)201 (91.4%)269 (92.8%)91 (93.8%)31 (88.6%)0.0509 mg/daye37 (6.9%)55 (4.4%)47 (2.6%)84 (3.4%)34 (5.7%)18 (11.2%)0.827
  Magnesium280 mg/day78 (54.9%)81 (36.7%)84 (38.2%)112 (38.6%)51 (52.6%)20 (57.1%)0.989280 mg/day118 (22.0%)290 (23.0%)376 (21.2%)574 (23.6%)173 (28.8%)57 (35.4%)0.001
  Potassium3100 mg/day99 (69.7%)126 (57.0%)137 (62.3%)176 (60.7%)66 (68.0%)28 (80.0%)0.5393100 mg/day186 (34.7%)473 (37.5%)698 (39.3%)1067 (43.8%)303 (50.4%)105 (65.2%)<  0.001
  Selenium50 μg/day92 (64.8%)155 (70.1%)158 (71.8%)232 (80.0%)81 (83.5%)31 (88.6%)<  0.00150 μg/day424 (79.1%)1066 (84.5%)1547 (87.2%)2201 (90.4%)558 (92.8%)154 (95.7%)<  0.001
  Vitamin C75 mg/day69 (48.6%)78 (35.3%)92 (41.8%)119 (41.0%)43 (44.3%)19 (54.3%)0.63975 mg/day135 (25.2%)319 (25.3%)517 (29.1%)709 (29.1%)178 (29.6%)48 (29.8%)0.008
  Vitamin D10 μg/dayf109 (76.8%)177 (80.1%)184 (83.6%)247 (85.2%)87 (89.7%)35 (100%)<  0.00110 μg/dayf442 (82.5%)1071 (84.9%)1524 (85.9%)2114 (86.8%)537 (89.4%)150 (93.2%)<  0.001
  Zinc7 mg/day25 (17.6%)34 (15.4%)30 (13.6%)43 (14.8%)23 (23.7%)11 (31.4%)0.1777 mg/day24 (4.5%)42 (3.3%)62 (3.5%)141 (5.8%)46 (7.7%)34 (21.1%)<  0.001
  1. Individuals below the average requirement and recommended intake by added-sugar group from Riksmaten Adults (N = 1797) and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (N = 12,238)
  2. The frequencies and percentages (in brackets) of individuals with micronutrient intakes below the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012 are presented by added sugar intake groups
  3. DRVs Dietary Reference Values
  4. a DRVs for a Nordic population according to NNR 2012 for adult males and females. b Statistical significance for the trends was established at p < 0.050. c No AR values for magnesium or potassium. d Pre-menopausal value. e Post-menopausal value. f Recommendation for adults up to 74 years old. g Recommendation for adults aged 31 and older