Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants by frequency of daytime napping

From: Association of daytime napping in relation to risk of diabetes: evidence from a prospective study in Zhejiang, China

Characteristics Overall (n = 53 916) Daytime napping P
Habitual (n = 2757) Only in summer (n = 17,648) Non-napping (n = 33,511)  
Mean age (years) 52.0 ± 9.9 53.1 ± 10.8 52.9 ± 9.8 51.3 ± 9.7 < 0.0001
Females (%) 58.1 43.1 51.0 63.2 < 0.0001
High school or above (%) 3.9 6.7 4.5 3.4 < 0.0001
Married (%) 93.1 93.1 93.5 92.8 0.0008
Household income ≥ 35,000 (yuan) (%) 37.8 40.9 38.7 37.0 < 0.0001
Current smokers (%) 28.0 26.7 27.6 28.5 < 0.0001
Current drinkers (%) 17.1 17.9 17.7 16.7 0.0011
Physical activities (MET-h/d) 30.6 ± 15.3 26.4 ± 16.3 29.3 ± 14.9 31.6 ± 15.1 < 0.0001
Consuming meat daily (%) 15.2 26.9 16.1 13.8 < 0.0001
Consuming fruit daily (%) 6.7 16.7 7.8 5.5 < 0.0001
Consuming vegetable daily (%) 93.8 93.7 92.9 94.3 < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.9 ± 3.1 23.2 ± 3.3 23.0 ± 3.1 22.8 ± 3.1 < 0.0001
WC (cm) 76.5 ± 9.1 77.7 ± 9.6 76.7 ± 9.1 76.3 ± 8.9 < 0.0001
Sleep duration (hours) 7.6 ± 1.2 8.0 ± 1.3 7.8 ± 1.2 7.5 ± 1.1 < 0.0001
Postmenopausal (%)a 53.7 53.8 53.7 53.7 0.86
  1. Data were adjusted for age and sex, as appropriate
  2. MET metabolic equivalent tasks, BMI Body Mass Index, WC waist circumference
  3. aOnly among the females
\