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Table 3 Adjusted hazard ratios for diabetes in relation to daytime napping among participants of Zhejiang

From: Association of daytime napping in relation to risk of diabetes: evidence from a prospective study in Zhejiang, China

  N. of participants N. of incident diabetes Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Total       
 Non-napping 33,511 1942 1 1 1 1
 Napping only in summer 17,648 1145 1.11 (1.04–1.20) 1.09 (1.01–1.18) 1.06 (0.99–1.14) 1.05 (0.97–1.13)
 Habitual daytime napping 2757 246 1.62 (1.42–1.85) 1.55 (1.35–1.77) 1.41 (1.23–1.62) 1.39 (1.21–1.59)
Males       
 Non-napping 12,265 599 1 1 1 1
 Napping only in summer 8689 505 1.16 (1.03–1.31) 1.13 (1.01–1.28) 1.09 (0.96–1.23) 1.07 (0.95–1.21)
 Habitual daytime napping 1619 145 1.81 (1.50–2.16) 1.67 (1.38–2.01) 1.47 (1.22–1.76) 1.45 (1.20–1.74)
Females       
 Non-napping 21,246 1343 1 1 1 1
 Napping only in summer 8959 640 1.09 (0.99–1.20) 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 1.05 (0.95–1.15) 1.03 (0.93–1.13)
 Habitual daytime napping 1138 101 1.45 (1.17–1.76) 1.43 (1.16–1.75) 1.33 (1.08–1.63) 1.30 (1.05–1.59)
  1. Model 1, adjusted for age and sex. Model 2, further adjusted for education level (no formal education, primary school, middle school, and high school or above), household income (< 19,999 yuan, 20,000–34,999 yuan, and ≥ 35,000 yuan), marital status, cigarettes consumption (never, occasional, former, and current regular), alcohol consumption (never, occasional, former, and current regular), meat, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables consumption (daily and non-daily), physical activity (continuous) and sleep duration (continuous). Model 3, further adjusted for and BMI (continuous) and WC (continuous). Model 4, further adjusted for snoring (none, occasional, and habitual)
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