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Table 2 Multivariate Cox regression analysis of total cholesterol levels with cause-specific mortality

From: A nonlinear association of total cholesterol with all-cause and cause-specific mortality

  Event/total Event rate/ 1000 person-years Model I Model II Model III
HR (95%CI), P-value HR (95%CI), P-value HR (95%CI), P-value
All-cause mortality
Total cholesterol (per 1 mmol/L increment) 2570/30,687 10.20 1.06 (1.03, 1.10) 0.0006 0.94 (0.90, 0.97) 0.0008 0.92 (0.89, 0.96) 0.0001
Total cholesterol group, mg/dL
  < 120 36/385 12.82 1.45 (1.04, 2.02) 0.0300 2.13 (1.53, 2.98) < 0.0001 1.97 (1.38, 2.83) 0.0002
 120–159 362/4782 10.08 1.14 (1.01, 1.29) 0.0410 1.36 (1.20, 1.53) < 0.0001 1.35 (1.18, 1.53) < 0.0001
 160–199 828/11,364 9.02 Reference Reference Reference
 200–239 860/9486 10.70 1.17 (1.07, 1.29) 0.0010 0.94 (0.86, 1.04) 0.2232 0.93 (0.84, 1.03) 0.1558
 240–279 348/3552 11.24 1.23 (1.08, 1.39) 0.0013 0.95 (0.84, 1.08) 0.4232 0.88 (0.77, 1.00) 0.0590
 ≥ 280 136/1118 13.29 1.43 (1.19, 1.72) 0.0001 1.16 (0.96, 1.39) 0.1188 1.07 (0.88, 1.29) 0.5114
P for trend    0.002  < 0.001  < 0.001
Cardiovascular mortality
Total cholesterol (per 1 mmol/L increment) 487/30,687 1.93 1.18 (1.09, 1.27) < 0.0001 1.07 (0.98, 1.17) 0.1125 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 0.2730
Total cholesterol group, mg/dL
  < 120 2/385 0.71 0.43 (0.11, 1.72) 0.2320 0.62 (0.15, 2.51) 0.5061 0.60 (0.15, 2.42) 0.4692
 120–159 55/4782 1.53 0.92 (0.68, 1.25) 0.5933 1.07 (0.79, 1.46) 0.6622 1.01 (0.73, 1.40) 0.9466
 160–199 155/11,364 1.69 Reference Reference Reference
 200–239 170/9486 2.12 1.24 (1.00, 1.55) 0.0498 1.00 (0.81, 1.25) 0.9789 0.98 (0.78, 1.23) 0.8393
 240–279 74/3552 2.39 1.40 (1.06, 1.85) 0.0175 1.11 (0.84, 1.46) 0.4804 1.02 (0.76, 1.37) 0.8938
 ≥ 280 31/1118 3.03 1.76 (1.19, 2.58) 0.0043 1.46 (0.99, 2.15) 0.0576 1.31 (0.87, 1.97) 0.2034
P for trend     < 0.001 0.208 0.410
Cancer mortality
Total cholesterol (per 1 mmol/L increment) 564/30,687 2.24 1.03 (0.95, 1.11) 0.4600 0.93 (0.86, 1.01) 0.0764 0.93 (0.85, 1.01) 0.0909
Total cholesterol group, mg/dL
 < 120 9/385 3.21 1.51 (0.78, 2.95) 0.2243 2.07 (1.06, 4.03) 0.0335 2.39 (1.21, 4.71) 0.0121
 120–159 76/4782 2.20 1.00 (0.77, 1.30) 0.9857 1.17 (0.90, 1.52) 0.2465 1.18 (0.89, 1.56) 0.2492
 160–199 198/11,364 2.16 Reference Reference Reference
 200–239 181/9486 2.25 1.03 (0.85, 1.27) 0.7409 0.87 (0.71, 1.06) 0.1743 0.85 (0.69, 1.05) 0.1294
 240–279 69/3552 2.23 1.02 (0.77, 1.34) 0.8973 0.84 (0.64, 1.11) 0.2248 0.85 (0.64, 1.13) 0.2548
 ≥ 280 31/1118 3.03 1.37 (0.94, 2.00) 0.1042 1.19 (0.81, 1.74) 0.3660 1.22 (0.82, 1.79) 0.3276
P for trend    0.473 0.050 0.061
  1. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval
  2. Model I adjust for none
  3. Model II adjust for age, gender, and race
  4. Model III adjust for age, gender, race, education level, married, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, energy intake, comorbidities (hypertension, and diabetes), and medication use (antihypertensive drugs, hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering drugs)