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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants in terms of lifestyle variables over phases of Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS)

From: Longitudinal association between an overall diet quality index and latent profiles of cardiovascular risk factors: results from a population based 13-year follow up cohort study

Variables Phases of study Adjusted P value for trend
2001 2007 2013
Overall diet quality index (DQI)1 1.02 ± 0.26 0.74 ± 0.29 0.67 ± 0.28  < 0.0015
Food groups (times per week)1
Non-hydrogenated and olive oil 2.28 ± 3.7 6.54 ± 4.63 6.35 ± 4.47  < 0.0015
Meat, egg and whole dairy products 6.38 ± 3.93 4.79 ± 3.15 2.04 ± 2.38  < 0.0015
Hydrogenated oil, ghee, animal fats and butter 10.19 ± 5.9 3.46 ± 4.26 1.95 ± 3.48  < 0.0015
Sweets 1.8 ± 3.23 1.3 ± 2.04 1.95 ± 3.18 0.145
Legumes, chicken, soya protein and Fish 5.6 ± 3.11 5.72 ± 2.99 3.08 ± 2.48  < 0.0015
Vegetables and fruit 12.93 ± 6.71 13.17 ± 6.09 12.32 ± 6.39 0.0025
Fast foods 0.48 ± 0.96 0.28 ± 0.56 0.23 ± 0.53  < 0.0015
Family history3 (Yes) 2 1099(39.0) 1956(68.9) 1233(84.2)  < 0.0016
Anti-dyslipidemia medications (Yes)2 224(8.0) 441(15.5) 349(23.8)  < 0.0016
Anti-hypertensive medications (Yes) 2 320(11.4) 604(21.3) 393(26.8)  < 0.0016
Anti-diabetic medications (Yes) 2 112(4.0) 305(10.7) 224(15.3)  < 0.0016
Smoking status (ever smoke) 2 617(21.9) 489(17.2) 285(19.5)  < 0.0016
Physical activity1 (MET-m/d)4
Tertile 1  < 565.7 332.01 ± 150.41  < 467.14 274.77 ± 122.74  < 501.55 296.36 ± 140.81  < 0.0017
Tertile 2 565.7–1062.8 810.97 ± 141.06 467.14–845.71 649.14 ± 107.51 501.55–856.14 670.37 ± 101.27
Tertile 3  > 1062.8 1497.75 ± 435.75  > 845.71 1297.24 ± 491.34  > 856.14 1372.03 ± 582.31
Adaptive copping strategy1
Tertile 1  < 28.57 14.12 ± 7.52  < 20 8.03 ± 6.79  < 33.33 16.26 ± 11.03 0.617
Tertile 2 28.57–69.23 48.33 ± 12.35 20–62.5 40.28 ± 12.10 33.33–75 53.89 ± 11.12
Tertile 3  > 69.23 88.63 ± 9.76  > 62.5 84.42 ± 12.32  > 75 93.46 ± 8.56
Maladaptive copping strategy1
Tertile 1 0 0  < 14.29 0.03 ± 0.57  < 16.67 0 0.147
Tertile 2 1–66.67 41.65 ± 10.84 14.29–66.67 41.06 ± 11.31 16.67–75 51.15 ± 15.00
Tertile 3  > 66.67 90.87 ± 13.87  > 66.67 90.29 ± 13.88  > 75 99.23 ± 3.79
  1. 1Data are expressed as Mean ± SD
  2. 2Data are expressed as number (percent)
  3. 3Family history of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke
  4. 4MET-m/d: metabolic equivalent task minutes per day
  5. 5P value obtained from linear mixed model adjusted for sex and age
  6. 6P value obtained from mixed effect logistic regression model adjusted for sex and age
  7. 7P value obtained from mixed effect ordered logistic regression model adjusted for sex and age