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Table 1 Metabolomic analyses in cervical lesions and cervical cancer

From: Metabolic reprogramming in cervical cancer and metabolomics perspectives

Year Group and sample size Sample origin Method Major findings References
2008 5 normal cervix, 45 CIN, 23 cervical cancer Biopsy specimens HR-MAS MRS 1. Choline and phosphocholine increased in cancer compared with high-grade CIN tissue 2. Phosphoethanolamine was increased in cancer compared with normal tissue 3. Alanine and creatine were reduced in normal tissue from cancer patients compared with normal tissue from non-cancer patients 4. Choline was increased in CIN tissue from cancer patients compared with CIN tissue from non-cancer patients 5. Choline-containing metabolites increased from pre-invasive to invasive cervical cancer [22]
2017 Training set: 70 cervical cancer, 80 normal control; testing set: 66 cervical cancer, 69 normal control Plasma LC–MS 1. 55 metabolites were down-regulated in cervical cancer patients while 7 metabolites were up-regulated 2. Bilirubin, LysoPC(17:0), n-oleoyl threonine, 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid and tetracosahexaenoic acid can be biomarkers for cervical cancer diagnosis [23]
2018 40 normal cervix, 40 HSIL Cervical cytologic specimens LC–MS 2 ceramides and 1 sphingosine metabolite are unique signatures for HSIL, and occurred independently of HPV status [24]
2018 42 negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 34 SIL Plasma Electrospray ionization coupled to Q Exactive Orbitrap MS (lipidomics) Prostaglandins, phospholipids, sphingolipids, Tetranor-PGFM and hydroperoxide lipid are distinct lipids to identify NILM and SIL [25]
2019 69 normal, 55 CIN1, 42 CIN2/3, 60 cervical cancer Plasma LC–MS 1. AMP, aspartate, glutamate, hypoxanthine, lactate, proline, and pyroglutamate were discriminated between CINs and cervical cancer versus normal 2. The seven metabolites combined with positive HPV status were correlated with substantial risk of cancer progression [26]
2019 18 healthy HPV−, 11 healthy HPV+, 12 LSIL, 27 HSIL, 10 cervical cancer Cervicovaginal lavages and vaginal swabs LC–MS 1. Three-hydroxybutyrate, eicosenoate, and oleate/vaccenate discriminated between cancer patients versus healthy 2. ICC group had an enrichment of amino acid metabolites in comparison to other groups that were HPV positive (healthy HPV+, LSIL, and HSIL) 3. Lipid, xenobiotics, and carbohydrate super-pathways metabolites enriched in the ICC group compared to other groups [27]
2019 13 HPV-negative, 26 HPV-positive (including 14 HR-HPV) Self-collected mid-vaginal swabs LC–MS HPV+ women had higher biogenic amine and phospholipid concentrations compared with HPV– women after adjustment for vaginal microbiota Community State Type and cigarette smoking [28]
2021 66 healthy controls, 55 CIN1, 44 CIN 2/3, 60 cervical cancer Plasma Ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight MS (UPLC-QTOF-MS, lipidomics) The levels of most diglyceride and FFA species were higher, while the levels of most phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species were lower in the patients with CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer than in the healthy controls and the patients with CIN1 [31]
  1. Summary of the design and findings of studies that applied metabolomics to investigate metabolic features in cervical diseases (HPV infection, cervical lesions and cervical cancer). The studies are listed in chronological order
  2. The specific metabolites included in Major findings are shown in bold texts