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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants across SUA quartiles (n = 4,546)

From: Serum uric acid and risk of incident chronic kidney disease: a national cohort study and updated meta-analysis

Characteristics    SUA (mg/dL)    P-value*
Total Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
  (< 3.5) (3.6–4.2) (4.3–5.0) (> 5.1)
Men, n (%) 2099 (46.2%) 251 (21.5%) 420 (37.1%) 633 (55.0%) 795 (72.4%) < 0.001
Education level, n (%)       < 0.001
 Illiterate 1310 (28.8%) 428 (36.7%) 364 (32.1%) 310 (27.0%) 208 (18.9%)  
 Primary school 1882 (41.4%) 438 (37.6%) 468 (41.3%) 459 (39.9%) 517 (47.1%)  
 Middle school or above 1354 (29.8%) 299 (25.7%) 301 (18.4%) 381 (33.1%) 373 (34.0%)  
Urban residence, n (%) 626 (13.8%) 135 (11.6%) 145 (12.8%) 160 (13.9%) 186 (16.9%) 0.002
Smoking status, n (%)       < 0.001
 Current 1388 (30.5%) 220 (18.9%) 292 (25.8%) 410 (35.7%) 466 (42.4%)  
 Former 359 (7.9%) 47 (4.0%) 67 (5.9%) 92 (8.0%) 153 (13.9%)  
 Never 2799 (61.6%) 898 (77.1%) 774 (68.3%) 648 (56.3%) 479 (43.6%)  
Alcohol consumption, n (%)        < 0.001
 Current 1202 (26.4%) 170 (14.6%) 239 (21.1%) 328 (28.5%) 465 (42.3%)  
 Former 368 (8.1%) 77 (6.6%) 94 (8.3%) 109 (9.5%) 88 (8.0%)  
 Never 2976 (65.5%) 918 (78.8%) 800 (70.6%) 713 (62.0%) 545 (49.6%)  
Hypertension, n (%) 1171 (25.8%) 224 (19.2%) 255 (22.5%) 319 (27.7%) 373 (34.0%) < 0.001
Prevalent diabetes mellitus, n (%) 671 (14.8%) 169 (14.5%) 151 (13.3%) 182 (15.8%) 169 (15.4%) 0.348
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 1879 (41.3%) 392 (33.6%) 440 (38.8%) 525 (45.7%) 522 (47.5%) < 0.001
Age, mean (SD), yrs 58.57 (8.67) 57.28 (8.48) 58.26 (8.40) 58.96 (8.75) 59.84 (8.85) < 0.001
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 23.52 (3.83) 23.11 (3.50) 23.40 (3.93) 23.67 (3.79) 23.94 (4.04) < 0.001
Systolic BP, mean (SD), mmHg 129.10 (21.12) 125.91 (19.62) 127.53 (20.32) 130.25 (22.77) 132.93 (21.00) < 0.001
Diastolic BP, mean (SD), mmHg 75.31 (11.90) 73.64 (11.05) 74.80 (11.84) 75.90 (12.31) 77.01 (12.12) < 0.001
Triglycerides, mean (SD), mg/dL 127.80 (91.54) 113.80 (75.23) 121.47 (83.24) 129.72 (93.76) 147.15 (108.29) < 0.001
Total cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL 194.14 (37.34) 189.61 (35.93) 192.91 (36.92) 196.06 (38.28) 198.22 (37.71) < 0.001
HDL Cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL 51.58 (15.18) 52.95 (14.23) 52.03 (14.67) 51.26 (15.88) 50.01 (15.76) < 0.001
LDL Cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL 117.41 (34.35) 115.58 (32.06) 117.34 (32.96) 118.83 (35.08) 117.93 (37.16) 0.135
Fasting glucose, mean (SD), mg/dL 108.76 (32.34) 110.33 (40.72) 108.00 (33.38) 108.18 (27.66) 108.46 (24.90) 0.280
SCr, mean (SD), mg/dL 0.76 (0.16) 0.66 (0.12) 0.72 (0.13) 0.78 (0.14) 0.87 (0.15) < 0.001
eGFR, mean (SD), mL/min per 1.73 m2 94.15 (12.53) 99.57 (10.83) 95.82 (11.16) 92.77 (12.47) 88.14 (12.74) < 0.001
  1. BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SCr, serum creatinine; SUA, serum uric acid; SD, standard deviation; yrs, years
  2. *P value by ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables