Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, and hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes in older individuals (2015–2018) calculated using univariate and multivariate analysis

From: Fluctuations in waist circumference increase diabetes risk: a 4-year cohort study in 61,587 older adults

  New-onset diabetes Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
No Yes HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI)
Number 60,173 (97.7%) 1414 (2.3%)    
Sex
 Men (%) 26,573 (97.7%) 638 (2.3%) 1.00 0.428  
 Women (%) 33,600 (97.7%) 776 (2.3%) 0.96 (0.86–1.06)   
Age (years) 67.68 ± 6.09 66.98 ± 5.90 0.98 (0.97–0.99) < 0.001  
 60–70 40,415 (97.6%) 1013 (2.4%) 1.00 0.002 1.00*
 71–80 16,749 (98.0%) 344 (2.0%) 0.83 (0.73–0.93)   0.82 (0.72–0.92)
 > 80 3009 (98.1%) 57 (1.9%) 0.76 (0.58–1.00)   0.75 0.58–0.99)
Hypertension
 No (%) 26,811 (97.9%) 577 (2.1%) 1.00 0.008  
 Yes (%) 33,362 (97.6%) 837 (2.4%) 1.15 (1.04–1.28)   
SBP (mmHg) 127.47 ± 13.51 127.44 ± 12.56 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.641  
 < 120 16,261 (97.8%) 359 (2.2%) 1.00 0.016  
 120–139 36,026 (97.6%) 896 (2.4%) 1.11 (0.98–1.25)   
 ≥ 140 7886 (98.0%) 159 (2.0%) 0.88 (0.73–1.06)   
DBP (mmHg) 78.71 ± 7.63 78.51 ± 7.05 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.202  
 < 80 28,102 (97.7%) 667 (2.3%) 1.00 0.026  
 80–89 26,782 (97.6%) 649 (2.4%) 1.01 (0.91–1.12)   
 ≥ 90 5289 (98.2%) 98 (1.8%) 0.76 (0.61–0.94)   
BMI (kg/m2) 24.66 ± 3.08 25.56 ± 3.19 1.09 (1.07–1.11) < 0.001  
 < 18.5 811 (99.1%) 7 (0.9%) 0.48 (0.23–1.00) < 0.001 0.48 (0.23–1.02)
 18.5–23.9 26,577 (98.2%) 479 (1.8%) 1.00   1.00*
 24–27.9 24,622 (97.5%) 641 (2.5%) 1.43 (1.27–1.61)   1.28 (1.14–1.45)
 ≥ 28 8163 (96.6%) 287 (3.4%) 1.91 (1.65–2.21)   1.48 (1.28–1.72)
WC (cm) 84.94 ± 8.54 87.01 ± 9.15 1.03 (1.02–1.03) < 0.001  
 < 85 (Women)/ < 90 (Men) 37,389 (98.0%) 748 (2.0%) 1.00 < 0.001  
 ≥ 85 (Women)/ ≥ 90 (Men) 22,784 (97.2%) 666 (2.8%) 1.44 (1.30–1.60)   
TC (mmol/L) 5.24 ± 1.12 5.24 ± 1.32 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 0.993  
 < 5.2 30,436 (97.6%) 746 (2.4%) 1.00 0.083  
 ≥ 5.2 29,737 (97.8%) 668 (2.2%) 0.91 (0.82–1.01)   
TG (mmol/L) 1.54 ± 0.95 1.72 ± 1.07 1.12 (1.09–1.16) < 0.001  
 < 1.7 43,392 (97.9%) 929 (2.1%) 1.00 < 0.001  
 ≥ 1.7 16,781 (97.2%) 485 (2.8%) 1.33 (1.19–1.48)   
FBG (mmol/L) 5.35 ± 0.91 5.96 ± 1.35 1.08 (1.07–1.09) < 0.001  
 < 6.1 52,939 (98.3%) 911 (1.7%) 1.00 < 0.001 1.00*
 6.1–6.9 5819 (95.2%) 294 (4.8%) 2.82 (2.47–3.22)   2.75 (2.40–3.14)
 ≥ 7.0 1415 (87.1%) 209 (12.9%) 7.85 (6.75–9.13)   7.34 (6.29–8.56)
ALT (U/L) 21.72 ± 14.67 24.74 ± 14.71 1.01 (1.00–1.01) < 0.001  
 < 40 56,788 (97.8%) 1266 (2.2%) 1.00 < 0.001 1.00*
 ≥ 40 3385 (95.8%) 148 (4.2%) 1.90 (1.60–2.25)   1.42 (1.20–1.70)
AST (U/L) 23.62 ± 12.17 24.67 ± 11.11 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.003  
 < 45 58,603 (97.8%) 1348 (2.2%) 1.00 < 0.001  
 ≥ 45 1570 (96.0%) 66 (4.0%) 1.76 (1.38–2.26)   
TBIL (µmol/L) 13.91 ± 6.02 13.49 ± 5.74 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.007  
 < 20 53,499 (97.7%) 1286 (2.3%) 1.00 0.008 1.00*
 ≥ 20 6674 (98.1%) 128 (1.9%) 0.78 (0.65–0.94)   0.70 (0.58–0.84)
Scr (µmol/L) 75.60 ± 22.05 75.89 ± 19.40 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.705  
 < 106 56,698 (97.7%) 1332 (2.3%) 1.00 0.976  
 ≥ 106 3475 (97.7%) 82 (2.3%) 1.00 (0.80–1.25)   
BUN (mmol/L) 5.66 ± 2.00 5.59 ± 1.89 0.98 (0.96–1.01) 0.236  
 < 7.1 51,425 (97.6%) 1243 (2.4%) 1.00 0.007  
 ≥ 7.1 8748 (98.1%) 171 (1.9%) 0.80 (0.68–0.94)   
Hgb (g/L) 138.76 ± 15.11 139.32 ± 16.04 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.268  
 < 110 (Women)/ < 120 (Men) 1663 (97.7%) 39 (2.3%) 1.02 (0.74–1.41) 0.888  
 ≥ 110 (Women)/≥120 (Men) 58,510 (97.7%) 1375 (2.3%) 1.00   
WBC (*1012/L) 6.02 ± 3.96 6.21 ± 3.56 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.073  
 < 4.0 3464 (98.7%) 45 (1.3%) 0.54 (0.40–0.72) < 0.001  
 4.0–9.9 55,856 (97.6%) 1349 (2.4%) 1.00   
 ≥ 10 853 (97.7%) 20 (2.3%) 0.98 (0.63–1.53)   
PLT (*1012/L) 209.57 ± 55.85 209.24 ± 53.14 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.747  
 < 100 56,174 (97.7%) 1328 (2.3%) 1.55 (1.06–2.27) 0.007  
 100–299 726 (96.4%) 27 (3.6%) 1.00   
 ≥ 300 3273 (98.2%) 59 (1.8%) 0.76 (0.58–0.98)   
Smoking status
 Never 45,412 (75.5%) 1132 (80.1%) 1.00 < 0.001  
 Past 2816 (4.7%) 58 (4.1%) 0.82 (0.63–1.06)   
 Current 11,945 (19.9%) 224 (15.8%) 0.74 (0.64–0.85)   
Alcohol consumption
 Never 50,475 (83.9%) 1242 (87.8%) 1.00 0.001 1.00*
 Less than once a week 4363 (7.3%) 77 (5.4%) 0.71 (0.57–0.90)   0.67 (0.53–0.84)
 More than once a week 1507 (2.5%) 30 (2.1%) 0.80 (0.56–1.15)   0.70 (0.49–1.01)
 Everyday 3828 (6.4%) 65 (4.6%) 0.69 (0.54–0.88)   0.66 (0.51–0.85)
Diet
 Animal-based 732 (1.2%) 16 (1.1%) 1.00 0.828  
 Balanced 57,227 (95.1%) 1349 (95.4%) 1.08 (0.66–1.78)   
 Vegetarian diet 2214 (3.7%) 49 (3.5%) 1.00 (0.57–1.76)   
Physical activity
 Never 12,706 (21.1%) 307 (21.7%) 1.00 0.676  
 Less than once a Week 3193 (5.3%) 82 (5.8%) 1.06 (0.83–1.35)   
 More than once a week 13,467 (22.4%) 304 (21.5%) 0.93 (0.79–1.09)   
 Everyday 30,807 (51.2%) 721 (51.0%) 0.98 (0.85–1.12)   
History of drug use
 Statins
  No (%) 59,856 (97.7%) 1401 (2.3%) 1.00 0.046 1.00**
  Yes (%) 317 (96.1%) 13 (3.9%) 1.74 (1.01–3.01)   1.85 (1.07–3.20)
 Psychotropics
  No (%) 60,018 (97.7%) 1410 (2.3%) 1.00 0.752  
  Yes (%) 155 (97.5%) 4 (2.5%) 1.17 (0.44–3.13)   
  1. BMI, body mass index; WC, waist circumference; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; WBC, white blood cells; Hgb, haemoglobin; PLT, platelet; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; FBG, fasting blood glucose; ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate transaminase; TBIL, total bilirubin; Scr, serum creatinine; BUN, blood urea nitrogen
  2. *P < 0.01, **P < 0.05