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Table 2 The in vitro and in vivo effect on anti-diabetic and underlying mechanism of anthocyanins

From: Antidiabetic properties of dietary flavonoids: a cellular mechanism review

Strcture of anthocyanins Plants/dietary source Specific mechanism of action Model References
Cyanidin Grapes, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, logan berry, acai berry and raspberry. ↑ pAMPK, pACC signaling and improve insulin signaling (pAkt, pFOXO-1). HFD-induced obesity rats Park 2015 [206]
↑ PGC-1α, SIRT1 and UCP-3 genes. 3 T3-Ll cells Matsukawa 2015 [207]
Lowered fasting glucose and improved insulin sensitivity. C57BL/6 J obese mice Guo 2012 [205]
Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and FoXO1.
Upregulated the GLUT4 and down-regulation of the inflammatory adipocytokines. HFD-KK-A(y) mice Sasaki 2007 [208]
Suppressed the mRNA levels of enzymes involved in FA and TG synthesis and lowered the SREBP-1 level. High fat-induced diabetic mice Tsuda 2003 [209]
↓ Glucose, mitochondrial (ROS) INS-1 cells and STZ-induced diabetic mice Sun 2012 [210]
Delphinidin Berries, dark grapes and vegetables such as eggplant, tomato, carrot, purple sweet potato, red cabbage and red onion ↓ Albumin and HbA1c glycation. Diabetic rats Gharib 2013 [212]
Cyclooxygenase inhibitor restored the relaxant responses to Ach and SNP. Diabetic microangiopathy. Bertuglia 1995 [211]
Pelargonidin Ficus bengalensis Linn and billberry ↓ Glucose, TBARS and ↑ SOD STZ-injected diabetic rats Mirshekar 2010 [215]
Improved retention and recall capability. STZ-diabetic rats Mirshekar 2011 [217]