Strcture of anthocyanins
Specific mechanism of action
Grapes, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, logan berry, acai berry and raspberry.
↑ pAMPK, pACC signaling and improve insulin signaling (pAkt, pFOXO-1).
HFD-induced obesity rats
Park 2015 
↑ PGC-1α, SIRT1 and UCP-3 genes.
3 T3-Ll cells
Matsukawa 2015 
Lowered fasting glucose and improved insulin sensitivity.
C57BL/6 J obese mice
Guo 2012 
Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and FoXO1.
Upregulated the GLUT4 and down-regulation of the inflammatory adipocytokines.
Sasaki 2007 
Suppressed the mRNA levels of enzymes involved in FA and TG synthesis and lowered the SREBP-1 level.
High fat-induced diabetic mice
Tsuda 2003 
↓ Glucose, mitochondrial (ROS)
INS-1 cells and STZ-induced diabetic mice
Sun 2012 
Berries, dark grapes and vegetables such as eggplant, tomato, carrot, purple sweet potato, red cabbage and red onion
↓ Albumin and HbA1c glycation.
Gharib 2013 
Cyclooxygenase inhibitor restored the relaxant responses to Ach and SNP.
Bertuglia 1995 
Ficus bengalensis Linn and billberry
↓ Glucose, TBARS and ↑ SOD
STZ-injected diabetic rats
Mirshekar 2010 
Improved retention and recall capability.
Mirshekar 2011