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Table 2 The in vitro and in vivo effect on anti-diabetic and underlying mechanism of anthocyanins

From: Antidiabetic properties of dietary flavonoids: a cellular mechanism review

Strcture of anthocyanins

Plants/dietary source

Specific mechanism of action




Grapes, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, logan berry, acai berry and raspberry.

↑ pAMPK, pACC signaling and improve insulin signaling (pAkt, pFOXO-1).

HFD-induced obesity rats

Park 2015 [206]

↑ PGC-1α, SIRT1 and UCP-3 genes.

3 T3-Ll cells

Matsukawa 2015 [207]

Lowered fasting glucose and improved insulin sensitivity.

C57BL/6 J obese mice

Guo 2012 [205]

Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and FoXO1.

Upregulated the GLUT4 and down-regulation of the inflammatory adipocytokines.

HFD-KK-A(y) mice

Sasaki 2007 [208]

Suppressed the mRNA levels of enzymes involved in FA and TG synthesis and lowered the SREBP-1 level.

High fat-induced diabetic mice

Tsuda 2003 [209]

↓ Glucose, mitochondrial (ROS)

INS-1 cells and STZ-induced diabetic mice

Sun 2012 [210]


Berries, dark grapes and vegetables such as eggplant, tomato, carrot, purple sweet potato, red cabbage and red onion

↓ Albumin and HbA1c glycation.

Diabetic rats

Gharib 2013 [212]

Cyclooxygenase inhibitor restored the relaxant responses to Ach and SNP.

Diabetic microangiopathy.

Bertuglia 1995 [211]


Ficus bengalensis Linn and billberry

↓ Glucose, TBARS and ↑ SOD

STZ-injected diabetic rats

Mirshekar 2010 [215]

Improved retention and recall capability.

STZ-diabetic rats

Mirshekar 2011 [217]